Before and After

Before and After er en amerikansk film fra 1996, basert på roman med samme navn fra 1992 som ble skrevet av Rosellen Brown. Filmen ble regissert av Barbet Schroeder, og hovedrollene spilles av Meryl Streep, Liam Neeson, Edward Furlong, og Julia Weldon.

I en liten by i Massachusetts bor Dr. Carolyn Ryan (Meryl Streep) og ektemannen Ben (Liam Neeson) som arbeider som skulptør. De ser ut til å leve et rolig og idyllisk liv sammen med sine to barn, Jacob (Edward Furlong) og Judith (Julia Weldon). Livene deres raser sammen når sheriff Fran Conklin (Daniel von Bargen) forteller dem at en ung kvinne, Martha Taverner, har blitt drept, og vitner har sett Jacob sammen med henne like før hun døde. Når Fran ber om å få snakke med Jacob, innser familien at han ikke befinner seg på rommet sitt slik de trodde. Conklin ber om å se i bilen til Jakob, men Ben nekter ham dette. Når Conklin spør hvor Jacob er blir Ben mer fiendtlig, og han krever at sheriffen skaffer seg en arrestordre på Jacob og en ransakelsesordre før han får lov til å se gjennom huset deres.

Når Conklin drar sin vei for å skaffe en arrestordre, leter Ben gjennom bilen til Jakob. Han finner noen klær og verktøy med blod på. Han brenner opp klærne og rengjør verktøyene før politiet kommer tilbake. Når Ben forteller Carolyn hva han har gjort, blir hun redd for at Ben kan ha ødelagt bevis som kan hjelpe dem å finne Jacob. Hun er redd for at noen kan ha drept både Martha og sønnen deres. De henger opp bilder av Jacob over hele byen i håp om at noen har sett noe. Men familien blir utstøtt fra innbyggerne i byen som er overbevist om at sønnen deres er en morder. Flere postkort begynne å komme fra Jacob. Det første kortet kommer fra Boston. I løpet av fem uker, kommer det postkort fra flere byer over hele landet. Carolyn er overbevist om at noen har kidnappet Jacob, og hun vil gå til politiet. Ben er fremdeles skeptisk til å avsløre noe, og han insisterer på å holde brevene hemmelig fordi de ikke vet hva som har skjedd med Jacob. Omsider blir Jacob arrestert og sendt tilbake til hjembyen hvor han skal stilles for retten. I begynnelsen er han nærmest katatonisk, og han er nesten stum.

Jacob snakker først til Judith når hun spør om han virkelig reiste over hele landet. Han forklarer at reiste til en flyplass en gang i uken, og maser på tilfeldige folk som var på vei til byene som var avbildet på postkortene. Til disse folkene påstod han at han nettopp hadde kommet tilbake fra ferie, men at han hadde glemt å sende brev til foreldrene sine, og han vil ikke at de skal tro at han hadde glemt dem. De reisende tar med seg brevene, og sender dem når de kommer frem til byen. Under en middag, får familien enda en trakasserende telefon fra byfolkene. Ben forsvarer sønnen sin, og sier at han er uskyldig. Rørt av farens oppriktighet, begynner Jacob endelig å åpne seg og han forklarer hva som skjedde. Kvelden hun døde, sa Martha at hun var gravid, og at hun hadde hatt sex med flere andre gutter. De kranglet, men ble venner igjen. De hadde sex i bilen til Jakob, og ble innesnødd. De bruker forskjellige verktøy, i ett forsøk på å få løs bilen. Samtidig begynner de å krangle voldsomt igjen, og Martha kaster et kubein på Jacob. Han blir rasende, og slår til henne. Hun landet med hodet først på en jekk og dør av skadene. Ben ble livredd, og turde ikke avsløre sannheten.

Jacob og faren finner om en annen versjon av historien, som de forteller til en advokat (Alfred Molina). Når Carolyn blir kalt inn som vitne under rettssaken mot Jacob, avslører hun sannheten. Advokaten blir sint, og han vil behandle Carolyn som en fiendtlig vitne og påstå at vitnesbyrdet hennes bare er ondsinnede rykter, ettersom historien hennes ikke stemmer med Jacobs beretning om det som skjedde. Når Ben oppdager hva Carolyn har gjort, blir han irritert på henne. En krangel bryter løs, og neste morgen har Jacob forsvunnet igjen. Han dukker opp på politistasjonen, hvor han har avgitt en full tilståelse. Som mindreårig, må foreldrene hans signere tilståelsen hans. Ben nekter, og sier at han aldri kan skrive under på noe som gjør at Jakob blir tatt fra ham. Jacob blir dømt til fem års fengsel for uaktsomt drap, men han blir løslatt etter to år med prøvetid. Ben blir dømt til nesten ett år for å ha dekket over en kriminell handling. Hele familien flytter deretter til Miami, hvor de begynner ett nytt liv.

Pavel Vorobiov

Pavel Sergueïevitch Vorobiov – en russe Павел Сергеевич Воробьёв et en anglais Pavel Vorobiev – (né le à Karaganda en République socialiste soviétique kazakhe) est un joueur professionnel de hockey sur glace russo-kazakh.

En 1996, il commence sa carrière avec l’équipe réserve du Molot Prikamie Perm en Pervaya Liga. En 1999, il débute avec le Lokomotiv Iaroslavl en Superliga. Il est repêché par les Blackhawks de Chicago en 1re ronde, 11e au total, au repêchage d’entrée dans la LNH 2000. De 2003 à 2006, il a évolué en Amérique du Nord. Il a notamment porté les couleurs des Blackhawks, et de son club-école des Admirals de Norfolk de la ligue américaine.

Il a représenté l’Équipe de Russie en sélection jeune.

Pour les significations des abréviations, voir statistiques du hockey sur glace.

Queen Christina (film)

Queen Christina is a pre-Code Hollywood biographical film, produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1933 by Walter Wanger and directed by Rouben Mamoulian. It stars Swedish-born actress Greta Garbo and John Gilbert in their fourth and last film together.

The film portrays the life of Queen Christina of Sweden who became monarch at the age of six in 1632 and grew to be a powerful and influential leader. As well as the demands of being a war-leader during the Thirty Year’s War Queen Christina is expected to marry a suitable royal figure and produce an heir. However, she falls in love with a visiting Spanish envoy whom she is forbidden to marry as he is a Roman Catholic and must choose between love and her royal duty.

The film was a major commercial and critical success in the U.S.A. and worldwide.

The film was directed by Rouben Mamoulian in 1933, and written by H. M. Harwood and Salka Viertel, with dialogue by S. N. Behrman, based on a story by Salka Viertel and Margaret P. Levino. Leading roles are played by Greta Garbo and John Gilbert, whose career heavily declined with the rise of talkies. Garbo herself insisted on Gilbert as her co-star. It was the fourth and the last time they starred together in the same film. Queen Christina was billed as Garbo’s return to cinema after an eighteen-month hiatus. Prior to the shooting, while on holiday in Sweden, the actress read a treatment by Salka Viertel about the life of Christina and became interested in the story. At the time of shooting the film, Garbo was 28, the age of her character.

Queen Christina is a historical costume drama, loosely based on the life of 17th century Queen Christina of Sweden and still more loosely of Stindberg’s history play Kristina. Apart from her, a number of other authentic historical characters appear in the film, such as Charles X Gustav of Sweden and Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie. Some events that took place in history, like the Thirty Years‘ War, are represented in the work, although Queen Christina is not a film closely depicting facts. In this historical fiction account, Queen Christina of Sweden falls in love during her reign but has to deal with the political realities of her society. In real life, Christina’s main reason for abdication was her determination not to marry and to be able to convert to Catholicism. Another fictionalized, if not entirely fictitious, element is the romantic affair between Christina and Antonio. However, the queen’s habit of dressing as a man in order to broaden the options available to her as a person is clearly marked in the film: „I shall die a bachelor!“ she declares, wears manly clothes and even disguises herself as a man. The only concession to the real Christina’s sexuality were some subtle hints that the film character was romantically attracted to one of her ladies in waiting. The film itself is remembered for no less than two cult scenes. The first one, over three minutes long, shows Christina walking around the room, having spent a night with Antonio at the inn. She touches various objects to imprint the space on her memory. The second one, arguably the most famous image in the film, is the closing shot, showing Christina standing as a silent figurehead at the bow of the ship bound for Spain. With the wind blowing through her hair, the camera moves into a tight close-up on her face. Prior to shooting the final scene, Mamoulian suggested that Garbo should think about nothing and avoid blinking her eyes, so that her face could be a „blank sheet of paper“ and every member of the audience could write the ending of the film themselves. Amusingly, this shot also contains one of the greatest continuity errors in movie history: The wind blowing Garbo’s hair is moving in the opposite direction from the wind blowing the ship’s sails.

Queen Christina of Sweden (Greta Garbo) is very devoted to her country and the welfare of her people. As queen, Christina favors peace for Sweden. At one point in the film, she argues for an end to the Thirty Years‘ War, saying:

Spoils, glory, flags and trumpets! What is behind these high-sounding words? Death and destruction, triumphals of crippled men, Sweden victorious in a ravaged Europe, an island in a dead sea. I tell you, I want no more of it. I want for my people security and happiness. I want to cultivate the arts of peace, the arts of life. I want peace and peace I will have!

Christina, who first took the throne at age six upon the death of her father in battle, is depicted as so devoted to both governing well and educating herself that she has spurned any kind of serious romance or marriage despite pressures from her councilors and court to marry her hero-cousin Karl Gustav (Reginald Owen) and produce an heir. One day, in an effort to escape the restrictions of her royal life, she sneaks out of town, disguised as a man, and ends up snowbound at an inn, where she has to share a bed with also stranded Spanish envoy Antonio (John Gilbert) on his way to the capital. After befriending, and upon revealing that she is a woman, then sharing the same bed, the two fall in love; however, she still has not revealed that she is the queen. After a few idyllic nights together, Christina and Antonio are compelled to part, but Christina promises to find him in Stockholm – which she does, when the Spaniard presents his embassy to the Queen, whom he recognizes as his lover. Antonio is angry as he has come to present an offer of marriage from the King of Spain to Queen Christina and feels that his loyalty to the king has been compromised. She makes clear that she will not accept the king’s proposal, and Christina and Antonio patch up their differences.

When Count Magnus (Ian Keith), who wants the Queen’s affections for his own, riles up the people against the Spaniard, Christina abdicates the throne, nominating her cousin Karl Gustav as her successor while declining to marry him. She leaves Sweden to catch up with Don Antonio who has just left for a neighboring country, but she finds him gravely wounded from a sword duel he had with Magnus, which he lost. Antonio dies in her arms. She resolves to proceed with her voyage to Spain where she envisions residing in Antonio’s home on the white cliffs overlooking the sea.

Uncredited Cast

The film premiered on December 26, 1933 in New York City, and throughout 1934 in the rest of the world.

Queen Christina turned out a success, gathering numerous positive reviews. Critic Mordaunt Hall, writing for the New York Times, gave the film a positive review and liked the screenplay, calling the dialogue „a bright and smooth piece of writing“ and referred to Mamoulian’s direction as „entrancing“. Positive opinions came also from Modern Screen‘s Walter Ramsey, who proclaimed it a „triumph for Garbo“, and a reviewer for Photoplay, who acclaimed Garbo’s „glorious reappearance“.

Motion Picture Daily called the film „creaky in spots“ but reported that Garbo „does beautifully“ and that the film was „well above the average in content and value.“ The New York Daily News wrote, „The picture moves a little slowly, but with grace, from one lovely setting to another. It is a picture that must not be missed, because Garbo is at her best in some of its scenes.“

Some reviews were more mixed. „Garbo overwhelms the picture“, wrote John Mosher in The New Yorker. „The story, the setting, her support cannot live up to her.“ Variety found the film „slow and ofttimes stilted“, though it wrote that Garbo’s „regal impression is convincing, which counts for plenty.“ The Sun of New York wrote that „Garbo seems to be suffering from an acute case of glamour. And that is probably not her fault. Gilbert tried very hard, but his performance is a little stilted. Queen Christina misses fire, somehow, and that is disappointing.“ Queen Christina received an 89% „Fresh“ rating at Rotten Tomatoes, based on eighteen reviews.

The film grossed over $2,500,000, recording a profit of $632,000 and becoming one of Garbo’s most commercially successful films. It was the most popular film at the U.S. box office for 1933.

It was nominated for the Mussolini Cup award at the Venice Film Festival in 1934, but lost to Man of Aran. The part of Queen Christina is regarded as one of the best in Garbo’s filmography. The film is especially notable for its resoundingly disproving rumours that John Gilbert’s lack of success in the sound era was due to an unsuitable voice.

The Cat Piano

The Cat Piano is an award winning animated short film directed by Eddie White and Ari Gibson and narrated by Nick Cave.

The Cat Piano is narrated by the main character of the animated short, an anthropomorphic cat. It is clear that the narration is a poem, which the poet is typing on a typewriter. In the beginning, we are introduced to his city’s love of music and musical prowess. The poet singles out one female singer of whom he is clearly enamored, quoting her singing as „A voice that made all the angels of eternity sound … tone deaf“. Shortly afterwards we are introduced to an overbearing structure beyond the sea, appearing to be a lighthouse. Its light quickly goes out, foreshadowing malevolence.

Singers and musicians begin to disappear into thin air, „Like sailors lost at sea“. As police investigate the missing cats, they find human shoeprints. The main character begins to explain the Cat Piano and its terrible function. We are informed that the Cat Piano is an instrument, much like any ordinary piano or harpsichord. The terrible reality is that instead of using strings and hammers to produce the desired noise, the Cat Piano produces noise by striking a nail into the tails of one or more cats that are caged in the piano. Immediately after discovering this, the main character rushes to warn the female singer, and arrives seconds too late.

His heart broken, the city falls to pieces around him, fights break out, and music becomes forbidden. For a short while, the poet is tortured of thoughts of The Cat Piano, and can’t get the sounds of screaming cats out of his head. He motions shooting himself with his hand, and with the word „Snap“, we are shown a glimpse of what appears to be a nightmare. In this nightmare, a dark humanoid figure holds up a cage with the afformentioned female singer and pricks her with a needle. The poet wakes up in a cold sweat and decides to take action. He observes the lighthouse from a hill, which now casts a red beam of light, and he can hear the terrible screams of the cats from a distance.

A makeshift army of the city’s citizens is shown behind him. He and the army head over to the lighthouse in boats, and upon their arrival begin to scale the lighthouse. They break into the lighthouse, and we are given a glimpse of the mad pianist. The instrument he is playing resembles more of an organ than a piano, but nevertheless it is a terrifying torture machine equipped with hundreds of needles. The poet meets eyes with the singer, who is placed at the very top of the organ. The man playing the organ turns around, and the army of cats attacks him. They bite, scratch, and claw at him until he stumbles out of a window and falls to his death.

They free the imprisoned cats, set fire to the lighthouse, and leave with the prisoners for home. The mood immediately becomes lighthearted again, as the city regains its artistic merit. The poet is sure to point out that he is no more famous or revered as he was before the incident – just an „anonymity“. He is just glad to be able to listen to the sounds of music coming from the streets. As he finishes his typing, just before the story ends, the singer he was enamored with is seen in his room. She walks over to him and affectionately strokes his chin, implying a happy ending for the poet.

Onehundredhours

Onehundredhours (also known among fans as ‚100h‘, or ‚the hours‘) were a Christian rock band, headed by Tré Sheppard.

The band initially started by accident an initial one-off gig, when Tré was asked to lead worship at a youth Cell-Church conference in 1997, which resulted in their first tour, of California after they were invited by the conference speakers. Following this, the band released 2 independent records, which sold in excess of 16,000 copies. Onehundredhours were then signed up by the Christian record label Survivor. Since then, another 2 albums have been released, assisting in the growth of the band’s popularity, in the UK and also within Europe, where many tours have taken place. They are also regular guests to Spring Harvest and Soul Survivor festivals, as well as New Wine.
In 2005, Onehundredhours supported Daniel Bedingfield on his UK & European tour. Daniel, a long-time friend of Onehundredhours, gave a personal invitation for the band to guest on the tour.
In 2006, the band toured throughout the UK, touring with Tree63 on their UK dates in December.Furthermore, on 11 May 2008 Onehundredhours played at the Astoria Theatre as part of the ‚Live at the Court‘ celebration, which made up a number of events in the London-wide pentecost festival. They shared the stage on this occasion with The Gentlemen, Electric Church and headliners Salvador.
In 2009, the band played their last gig at Soul Survivor Week C.

The Band’s name comes from the average amount of free time a Christian has each week, inspired by the book ‘The Other Hundred Hours’ by Wyn Fountain. The process on which it works is as follows:
There are 7 x 24 = 168 hours in a week
If you spend 8 hours sleeping per day, this makes 7 x 8 = 56 hours per week
So extracting the time spent sleeping, that leaves 112 hours a week. 12 hours is about the maximum time one can spend in church, at bible studies, or youth groups etc. That leaves 100 hours, and the band wanted to say that this doesn’t need to be 100 hours without God, but instead that worship should be a lifestyle, which spans all our time.[citation needed]

Tré Sheppard
Tori Sheppard
Tim Cooke
Mark Prentice
Steve Evans
Jonny Ravn

Engagehivaids.com was set up by Onehundredhours in 2004. It is a web-based community created, in partnership with the iThemba AIDS Foundation, to raise awareness for the HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa. To date, many campaigns have been run, including selling red rubber wrist bands, a texting service, and selling badges. The ultimate goal is for the band’s heart to inspire, challenge and resource young people to live their lives with justice, hope, action and love at the core to bring about change for people affected by HIV/AIDS.

Кумулятивный эффект

Кумулятивный эффект, эффект Манро (англ. Munroe effect) — усиление действия взрыва путём его концентрации в заданном направлении, достигаемое применением заряда с выемкой, противоположной местонахождению детонатора и обращённой в сторону поражаемого объекта. Кумулятивная выемка обычно конической формы, покрывается металлической облицовкой, толщина которой может варьироваться от долей миллиметра до нескольких миллиметров.

Кумулятивный эффект применяется в исследовательских целях (возможность достижения больших скоростей вещества — до 90 км/с), в горном деле, в военном деле (бронебойные снаряды).

После взрыва капсюля-детонатора, находящегося на противоположной по отношению к выемке стороне заряда, возникает детонационная волна, которая перемещается вдоль оси заряда.

Волна, распространяясь к боковым образующим конуса облицовки, схлопывает её стенки друг навстречу другу, при этом в результате соударения стенок облицовки давление в её материале резко возрастает. Давление продуктов взрыва, достигающее порядка 1010 Па (105 кгс/см²), значительно превосходит предел текучести металла, поэтому движение металлической облицовки под действием продуктов взрыва подобно течению жидкости, однако обусловлено не плавлением, а пластической деформацией.

Аналогично жидкости, металл облицовки формирует две зоны — большой по массе (порядка 70-90 %) медленно двигающийся «пест» и меньшую по массе (порядка 10-30 %) тонкую (порядка толщины облицовки) гиперзвуковую металлическую струю, перемещающуюся вдоль оси симметрии заряда, скорость которой зависит от скорости детонации взрывчатого вещества и геометрии воронки. При использовании воронок с малыми углами при вершине возможно получить крайне высокие скорости, но при этом возрастают требования к качеству изготовления облицовки, так как повышается вероятность преждевременного разрушения струи. В современных боеприпасах используются воронки со сложной геометрией (экспоненциальные, ступенчатые и др.) с углами в диапазоне 30-60 градусов; скорость кумулятивной струи при этом достигает 10 км/с.

Поскольку при встрече кумулятивной струи с бронёй развиваются очень высокие давления, на один-два порядка превосходящие предел прочности металлов, то струя взаимодействует с бронёй в соответствии с законами гидродинамики, то есть при соударении они ведут себя как идеальные жидкости. Прочность брони в её традиционном понимании в этом случае практически не играет роли, а на первое место выходят показатели плотности и толщины бронирования.

Теоретическая пробивная способность кумулятивных снарядов пропорциональна длине кумулятивной струи и квадратному корню отношения плотности облицовки воронки к плотности брони. Практическая глубина проникновения кумулятивной струи в монолитную броню у существующих боеприпасов варьируется в диапазоне от 1,5 до 4 калибров.

При схлопывании конической оболочки скорости отдельных частей струи оказываются различными, и струя в полёте растягивается. Поэтому небольшое увеличение промежутка между зарядом и мишенью увеличивает глубину пробивания за счёт удлинения струи. Однако при значительных расстояниях между зарядом и мишенью непрерывность струи нарушается что снижает бронебойный эффект. Наибольший эффект достигается на так называемом «фокусном расстоянии», на котором струя максимально растянута, но ещё не разорвана на отдельные фрагменты. Для выдерживания этой дистанции используют различные типы наконечников соответствующей длины.

При перемещении в твёрдой среде градиентно разорванная кумулятивная струя самоцентрируется, а диаметр трека по мере удаления от точки фокуса уменьшается. При перемещении разорванной на фрагменты кумулятивной струи в жидкостях и газах – каждый фрагмент перемещается по собственной траектории, а диаметр трека по мере удаления от точки фокуса увеличивается. Этим объясняется резкое снижение пробивной способности высоко градиентных кумулятивных струй при использовании противокумулятивных экранов.

Использование заряда с кумулятивной выемкой без металлической облицовки снижает кумулятивный эффект, так как вместо металлической струи действует струя газообразных продуктов взрыва; однако при этом достигается значительно более сильное заброневое действие.

Ударное ядро — компактная металлическая форма, напоминающая пест, образующаяся в результате сжатия металлической облицовки кумулятивного заряда продуктами его детонации.

Для образования ударного ядра кумулятивная выемка имеет тупой угол при вершине или форму сферического сегмента переменной толщины (у краёв толще, чем в центре). Под влиянием ударной волны происходит не схлопывание конуса, а выворачивание его «наизнанку». Полученный снаряд диаметром в четверть и длиной в один калибр (первоначальный диаметр выемки) разгоняется до скорости 2,5 км/с. Бронебойное действие ядра ниже, чем у кумулятивной струи, но зато сохраняется на расстоянии до 1000 калибров. В отличие от кумулятивной струи, состоящей лишь из 15 % массы облицовки, ударное ядро образуется из 100 % её массы.

В 1792 году горный инженер Франц фон Баадер высказал предположение, что энергию взрыва можно сконцентрировать на небольшой площади, используя полый заряд. Однако в своих экспериментах фон Баадер использовал чёрный порох, который не может формировать необходимую детонационную волну. Впервые продемонстрировать эффект применения полого заряда удалось лишь с изобретением высокобризантных взрывчатых веществ. Это сделал в 1883 году изобретатель Макс фон Фёрстер (Max von Foerster).

Повторно открыл кумулятивный эффект, исследовал и подробно описал его в своих работах американец Чарльз Манро (Charles Edward Munro) в 1888 году.

В Советском Союзе в 1925—1926 годах изучением зарядов взрывчатых веществ с выемкой занимался профессор М. Я. Сухаревский.

В 1938 году Франц Томанэк (Franz Rudolf Thomanek) в Германии и Генри Мохоупт (Henry Hans Mohaupt) в Швейцарии независимо друг от друга открыли эффект увеличения пробивной способности при применении металлической облицовки конуса.

Рентгено-импульсная съемка процесса, осуществленная в 1939 — начале 1940-х годов в лабораториях Германии, США и Великобритании, позволила существенно уточнить принципы действия кумулятивного заряда (традиционная фотосъёмка невозможна из-за вспышек пламени и большого количества дыма при детонации).

Кумулятивные боеприпасы впервые были применены в боевых условиях 10 мая 1940 г. при штурме форта Эбен-Эмаэль (Бельгия). Тогда для подрыва укреплений диверсионным отрядом использовались переносные заряды в виде полусфер весом 12,5 и 50 кг.

Одним из неприятных сюрпризов лета 1941 года для танкистов РККА стало применение войсками Германии кумулятивных снарядов и гранат. На подбитых танках обнаруживались пробоины с оплавленными краями, поэтому снаряды получили название «бронепрожигающих». 23 мая 1942 года на Софринском полигоне были проведены испытания снаряда к 76-мм полковой пушке, разработанного НИИ-6 на основе трофейного немецкого снаряда. По результатам испытаний 27 мая 1942 года первый советский кумулятивный снаряд БП-353А принят на вооружение.

В 1949 году Михаил Алексеевич Лаврентьев становится лауреатом Сталинской премии за создание теории кумулятивных струй.

В 1950-е годы был достигнут огромный прогресс в понимании принципов формирования кумулятивной струи. Предложены методы усовершенствования кумулятивных зарядов пассивными вкладышами (линзами), определены оптимальные формы кумулятивных воронок, применена ступенчатая облицовка конуса для компенсации вращения снаряда, разработаны специальные составы взрывчатых веществ. Многие из обнаруженных в те далекие годы явлений изучаются и до настоящего времени.

Несмотря на относительно слабое заброневое действие, кумулятивная граната при попадании в башню, как правило, убивает одного или более членов экипажа бронемашины, может вывести из строя вооружение, подорвать боекомплект. Попадание в моторное отделение делало машину неподвижной мишенью, а если на пути кумулятивной струи встречались топливопроводы, происходило воспламенение.

Тяжёлые ПТУР (типа 9М120 «Атака», «Хеллфайр») при попадании в бронированные машины лёгкого класса с противопульной защитой своим синергетическим действием могут уничтожить не только экипаж, но и частично или полностью разрушить машины. С другой стороны, воздействие большинства носимых ПТС на ББМ (при отсутствии детонации боеприпасов ББМ) не столь критично — здесь наблюдается обычный эффект заброневого действия кумулятивной струи, а поражения экипажа избыточным давлением не происходит.

См. также Кумулятивно-осколочный снаряд

Rabanera de Cameros

Rabanera de Cameros ist eine kleine Gemeinde in der Autonomen Gemeinschaft La Rioja in der Region Camero Viejo, Spanien. Es ist der Geburtsort des spanischen Industriellen Manuel Agustín Heredia (1786–1846).

Im 17. Jahrhundert wurde der Gemeindename als Municipio Rabanera de Cameros erstmals in Kirchendokumenten von Logroño erwähnt. Unter der Verwaltung der Señorío de Cameros wurde in der Gemeinde Keramik hergestellt und Gemüse- und Getreideanbau sowie Viehzucht betrieben. Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts folgte die Textilindustrie, die zum demografischen und wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung des Dorfes führte. So hatte Rabanera de Cameros 1857 bereits 211 Einwohner, die Bevölkerungszahl hielt sich bis ins 19. Jahrhundert im Schnitt, danach gingen die Einwohnerzahlen zurück. Der Niedergang der Textilindustrie führte dann zum demografischen Niedergang des Dorfes. 1960 waren es noch rund 95 und 1970 bereits nur noch 35 Einwohner.

Die Gemeinde hatte 2015 eine Einwohnerzahl von 34 Personen.

Die Iglesia Parroquial de la Asunción auf dem höchsten Punkt im Ort wurde im Wesentlichen im 16. Jahrhundert errichtet. Das dreiteilige Kirchenschiff besteht aus einem Naturstein-Quadermauerwerk.

Die südliche Sakristei, der Turm mit drei Glockenöffnungen und der seitlich mit Bögen versehene Wandelgang wurde im Jahre 1641 erweitert. 1740 wurden die Veranda und die Frontseite erneuert. 1970 drohte der Verfall der Kirche, sie konnte jedoch durch eine Renovierung weitgehend erhalten werden.

Ábalos | Agoncillo | Aguilar del Río Alhama | Ajamil | Albelda de Iregua | Alberite | Alcanadre | Aldeanueva de Ebro | Alesanco | Alesón | Alfaro | Almarza de Cameros | Anguciana | Anguiano | Arenzana de Abajo | Arenzana de Arriba | Arnedillo | Arnedo | Arrúbal | Ausejo | Autol | Azofra | Badarán | Bañares | Baños de Río Tobía | Baños de Rioja | Berceo | Bergasa | Bergasillas Bajera | Bezares | Bobadilla | Brieva de Cameros | Briñas | Briones | Cabezón de Cameros | Calahorra | Camprovín | Canales de la Sierra | Canillas de Río Tuerto | Cañas | Cárdenas | Casalarreina | Castañares de Rioja | Castroviejo | Cellorigo | Cenicero | Cervera del Río Alhama | Cidamón | Cihuri | Cirueña | Clavijo | Cordovín | Corera | Cornago | Corporales | Cuzcurrita de Río Tirón | Daroca de Rioja | Enciso | Entrena | Estollo | Ezcaray | Foncea | Fonzaleche | Fuenmayor | Galbárruli | Galílea | Gallinero de Cameros | Gimileo | Grañón | Grávalos | Haro | Herce | Herramélluri | Hervías | Hormilla | Hormilleja | Hornillos de Cameros | Hornos de Moncalvillo | Huércanos | Igea | Jalón de Cameros | Laguna de Cameros | Lagunilla del Jubera | Lardero | Ledesma de la Cogolla | Leiva | Leza de Río Leza | Logroño | Lumbreras | Manjarrés | Mansilla de la Sierra | Manzanares de Rioja | Matute | Medrano | Munilla | Murillo de Río Leza | Muro de Aguas | Muro en Cameros | Nájera | Nalda | Navajún | Navarrete | Nestares | Nieva de Cameros | Ochánduri | Ocón | Ojacastro | Ollauri | Ortigosa de Cameros | Pazuengos | Pedroso | Pinillos | Pradejón | Pradillo | Préjano | Quel | Rabanera | El Rasillo de Cameros | El Redal | Ribafrecha | Rincón de Soto | Robres del Castillo | Rodezno | Sajazarra | San Asensio | San Millán de la Cogolla | San Millán de Yécora | San Román de Cameros | San Torcuato | San Vicente de la Sonsierra | Santa Coloma | Santa Engracia del Jubera | Santa Eulalia Bajera | Santo Domingo de la Calzada | Santurde de Rioja | Santurdejo | Sojuela | Sorzano | Sotés | Soto en Cameros | Terroba | Tirgo | Tobía | Tormantos | Torre en Cameros | Torrecilla en Cameros | Torrecilla sobre Alesanco | Torremontalbo | Treviana | Tricio | Tudelilla | Uruñuela | Valdemadera | Valgañón | Ventosa | Ventrosa | Viguera | Villalba de Rioja | Villalobar de Rioja | Villamediana de Iregua | Villanueva de Cameros | El Villar de Arnedo | Villar de Torre | Villarejo | Villarroya | Villarta-Quintana | Villavelayo | Villaverde de Rioja | Villoslada de Cameros | Viniegra de Abajo | Viniegra de Arriba | Zarratón | Zarzosa | Zorraquín

March of the Dungarees

The March of the Dungarees was a snowball march in November 1915 in South-East Queensland, Australia, to recruit men into the Australian military during World War I at a time when enthusiasm to enlist had waned after the loss of life in the Gallipoli campaign. The march began at Warwick with 28 men and followed the Southern railway line through Toowoomba, Laidley, and Ipswich to its destination in Brisbane, gathering 125 recruits along the way.

Following Britain’s declaration of war on Germany on 4 August 1914, Australia and the other members of the British Empire were also at war. The first Australian to perish on the Western Front was Lieutenant William Malcolm Chisholm of the Lancashire Regiment, who died in the Battle of Le Cateau in France on 26 August 1914. Closer to home, Australian troops secured German New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago in September–October 1914. Australians landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey on 25 April 1915. By October 1915, Australia had lost 7,279 men in the Gallipoli Campaign and thousands more were wounded. More recruits were needed.

On 5 November 1915, the Queensland Recruiting Committee held a public meeting in the Exhibition Hall in Brisbane to initiate a snowball recruitment march. Snowball Marches—named for their ability to gather up men along the way—began with the ‚Cooees‘ march from Gilgandra to Sydney in October 1915. The March of the Dungarees was the second snowball march, travelling from Warwick to Brisbane. Another Queensland snowball march was the Cane Beetles March from Mooliba to Cairns for Anzac Day in April 1916.

Stanthorpe was proposed as the starting point for the recruitment march in the initial planning stages. Public meetings were held throughout the district calling for support from communities in providing meals and accommodation, as well as setting up meetings in each town on the planned route. The first public meeting in the Warwick district was held in Pratten, about 30 km to the north-west on 6 November 1915. A similar meeting was held in Toowoomba.

Stanthorpe held a recruiting meeting at the Shire Hall on 10 November. Lieutenant David Binnie—who was in charge of the march—indicated his desire to commence at Stanthorpe, but it was later decided to start at Warwick. Eight Stanthorpe men volunteered to join up, taking the train to Warwick in time for the commencement of the march, with a ninth man catching up the following day.

At the same time, recruiting meetings were held in nearby townships including Allora, Sandy Creek, Maryvale, Yangan, Tannymorel and Killarney. These men either made their way to Warwick or joined the march at other towns along the route. All of the recruits‘ belongings were taken by train which is why the route follows the Southern railway line to Toowoomba and down to Brisbane.

Recruits:

The town of Warwick in the southern Darling Downs was the starting point of the recruitment march of the Dungarees. Crowds assembled outside the Warwick Town Hall in Palmerin Street at 10.30am on the morning of 16 November 1915 to farewell the men. The previous evening, 28 recruits from Stanthorpe and Warwick districts were sworn-in, and further men were expected to join.

Warwick town centre was gaily decorated and businesses closed for an hour to ensure a large gathering. A guard of honour was formed by the local school children waving flags. Commanding Officer, Lieutenant David Binnie, and the Warwick contingent led the march under a new Union Jack presented by the Mayor of Warwick while the Stanthorpe boys held a tattered and battle-stained Australian flag. It had been the first flag hoisted by the 9th battalion at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915.

The men wore dark dungaree (blue denim-like material) uniforms with white linen hats and were supplied with badges indicating their initial acceptance following a medical examination into the recruitment process. This outfit of clothes was used as fatigues (clothes for non-combat manual work) by Australian soldiers since at least the Boer War.

The public spectacle of the march out of Warwick continued over the Helene Street Bridge, along the Condamine River bank, (where sporting fields are today), under the railway, and headed along Glengallan Road.

The Dungarees marched out of Warwick on the morning of 16 November 1915, pausing to take the salute on the Helene Street Bridge along the Condamine River bank, (where sporting fields are today), under the railway, and headed along Glengallan Road.

At Mr Margett’s residence, opposite the intersection with Womina–Willowvale Road, the troops were taken by local cars for the 12 km run to Glengallan Homestead in time for lunch, which was provided by the Warwick Recruiting Committee.

Recruits: 13, plus 3 nominated but not listed

The Dungarees set out from Glengallan in the early afternoon of 16 November 1915 for the 16 kilometre march to Allora. They stopped at Mount Marshall for afternoon tea, before heading into Allora for the night. The shops were decorated with bunting, the school bell rang out, and the town band accompanied them into town. They stopped to pay their respects at the Boer War Memorial where the Allora Mayor, Cr T Muir, made a speech. The memorial had been unveiled in 1904 by Colonel (later Sir) Harry Chauvel, honouring the four local men who died, and 35 others who served in the southern African conflict. The men were supplied with a hot dinner at Weatherley’s Café.

Allora was the centre of a major wheat-growing district at the time and the men camped in the grain shed at the flour mill in Warwick Street (the flour mill no longer exists). At the recruitment evening in the Protestant Hall, one long-term resident, Mr Brandon, indicated there would likely be many more recruits after Christmas. The wheat harvest was a priority, followed by the maize planting, and young men needed to complete this important work before joining up.

Recruits: 3 (but 1 later discharged on medical grounds)

The men were up early on the morning of 17 November 1915 for breakfast at Weatherley’s Café in Allora. The local ladies presented the recruits with some „necessities of life“ including tobacco, pipes, cigarettes, matches, shaving soap and razor strops. The march from Allora travelled north through Spring Creek where the men were given lunch by the Red Cross Society at „Ellerton“, the property of Mr Fred Easton. The children from the Spring Creek School sang the national anthem, „God Save the King“.

On the approach to Clifton they were joined by decorated motor cars and vehicles of all description. They set up camp in the showgrounds where they were able to take a shower but another cooling option was a short drive to Kings Creek for a swim. In the evening, a recruitment rally was held in the School of Arts Hall. The men were entertained by the local children’s choir and six recruits were sworn in.

At that time, Clifton had a cottage hospital which had been established by local nurse, Sister Elizabeth Kenny. She had enlisted in May 1915, and was nursing on troopships returning wounded soldiers to Australia. Sister Kenny was to later achieve fame through her therapeutic methods of dealing with polio sufferers.

Recruits: 4, plus 2 nominated but not enlisted

On the morning of 18 November 1915, the men assembled at Clifton Post Office and then marched to the Queensland National Bank, where the manager, on behalf of the Red Cross Society, presented the men with cigarettes, handkerchiefs and other useful items.

They continued on to the Nobby cemetery where they unveiled the Victor Denton War Memorial, a memorial to local 20-year-old soldier Private Victor Denton who was killed in June 1915 in the Gallipoli Campaign. The concrete and stone memorial comprises a broken column which symbolises a life cut short. The Last Post was played and the hymn „Nearer, My God to Thee“ was sung. This was the first monument to an individual soldier to be erected in Queensland.

The men were welcomed by the Nobby community with a banquet lunch at the School of Arts Hall.

Meanwhile, in Toowoomba, rehearsals were being held with the massed bands which were to join the march into town on 20 November 1915.

The Dungarees marched from Nobby to Greenmount on the afternoon of 18 November 1915, arriving late afternoon, and camping at the School of Arts. A hot dinner was provided for them in the hall, prior to a recruitment meeting and a concert.

They were welcomed by Arthur Hoey Davis, the Chairman of the Cambooya Shire Council and the local recruitment committee, but better known by his pen-name Steele Rudd, who grew up in Greenmount, when it was known as Emu Creek. His son, Gower, enlisted in the 2nd Light Horse in March 1915. When Steele Rudd’s play „Duncan McLure“ was first performed in Toowoomba, Lieutenant Binnie (Commanding Officer of the Dungarees) had the lead role. All of the proceeds were donated to the Wounded Soldier’s Fund.

Recruits: 5

The men marched from Greenmount to Cambooya in time for lunch on 19 November 1915. Here they were met by a parade of vehicles, people on horseback and school children from Cambooya, Ramsay and Harrow. A swim in the creek cooled them off, and a sports afternoon was held to lift the spirits of the men. Further country hospitality was provided including an evening meal from the Cambooya Shire Council. A recruitment meeting in the Masonic Hall was accompanied by a concert and supper. The men camped at the hall overnight.

The State Commandant Colonel George Leonard Lee stayed with the Ramsay family at Harrow Homestead (now a garden estate, only open to the public during the Carnival of Flowers and for the Open Garden Scheme).

Recruits: 1

On the morning of 20 November 1915, the Dungarees marched from Cambooya and to Wyreema Hall for breakfast around 8am. Colonel Lee arrived with Mr and Mrs Ramsay from Harrow and joined the men for breakfast and some more rousing speeches before the Dungarees were on their way again. As they marched through Westbrook, the boys of the reformatory school lined up to cheer them on. Then it was on to the Drayton Shire Hall for lunch, provided by the Drayton Shire Council.

After lunch at Drayton on 20 November 1915, the Dungarees were joined by the Toowoomba Civic Guard and about 50 volunteers from the Toowoomba district who were on leave from Enoggera Barracks. They moved on towards Harristown.

The group arrived just in time for the official opening of the Harristown All Nations Fair at the Harristown Hall. Three recruits volunteered here at the fete, the first from Warra and the others from West Street Toowoomba, where the group was about to proceed.

Recruits:

Crowds welcomed the Dungarees as they marched from Harristown along Drayton Road into West Street and then past the hospital in James Street on 20 November 1915. The matron, nurses and as many patients as were able, came out to wave them on.

A rally was held at the intersection of Ruthven and Margaret Streets with speeches from a range of military and political leaders. Toowoomba was praised for the 2,000 young men who had volunteered since the end of July—almost 10% of the population at the time. Perhaps ironically, this was the site that the Toowoomba Mothers‘ Memorial was installed after the war.

The rally at this intersection included the ceremonial unfurling of the Gallipoli Flag carried by the Stanthorpe contingent. Sergeant Day explained how he had been wounded there, but was keen to get back.

The men marched on to the showgrounds where they camped.

In the evening further short speeches were made at the Elite and the Empire picture theatres before the entertainment began. On Sunday morning 21 November 1915, the Dungarees participated in a church parade before being entertained by a band recital in the Toowoomba Botanic Gardens.

Recruits: 5 plus 3 nominated but not enlisted. A further 12 men from Toowoomba and other towns to the west joined up during this weekend, but it is unclear if they accompanied the Dungaree march to Brisbane.

The Civic Guard formed a guard of honour as 52 Dungarees headed east out of Toowoomba to the edge of the range, on the morning of 22 November 1915. They halted at the top of the Toowoomba Toll Bar Road for a final farewell prior to their descent to the valley below. The Mayor of Toowoomba, Henry Webb, suggested that more Toowoomba men might join the march later as many were still making up their minds.

The men stopped for lunch at the Postman’s Ridge School, then marched on to Helidon around 4pm. Local school children joined them for the last half mile singing patriotic songs and carrying flags.

The Dungarees had a refreshing swim in Lockyer Creek prior to dinner and another local recruitment drive, before setting up camp for the night in the reserve on the creek bank near the bridge. A local vehicle was provided to bring the kit bags from the train and a railway goods shed was made available in case of rain.

After a hearty country breakfast in Helidon on the morning of 23 November 1915, the Dungarees marched to Grantham for lunch, where they were entertained by the local school children. The Lockyer Valley at this time was a rich farming area, which produced citrus and dairy products.

Recruits: 2

The Dungarees then proceeded to Gatton, pausing to pay their respects at the Boer War Memorial in the late afternoon and speeches were made. Then they were entertained at an evening banquet at the Shire Hall and a dance at the School of Arts Hall.

A late breakfast at the Shire Hall on the morning of 24 November 1915 was followed with a march to the Gatton Agricultural College (now a campus of the University of Queensland). Lieutenant David Binnie, the Commanding Officer of the Dungarees, was a former student. After a short address by the Principal Mr Cuthbert Potts, the men were able to spend some time looking over the college before enjoying lunch.

Recruits: 2 but 1 later discharged on medical grounds

The Dungarees moved on to Forest Hill for afternoon tea in School of Arts Hall on the 24 November 1915 where badges were presented to the volunteers by Miss G Logan—presumably a relative of former resident Major Thomas James Logan a member of the 2nd Light Horse Regiment who had died at Gallipoli in August 1915. A memorial service had been held in the hall for him. Major Logan’s name is the first on the Forest Hill War Memorial, erected in 1921. He had also served in the Boer War.

Recruits: 2

The Dungarees marched on to Laidley on the afternoon of 24 November 1915 accompanied by the bugle band of the local cadets. All the town shops closed at 3pm, and residents of the district gathered for a civic welcome near the railway crossing on Patrick Street. In the evening a concert and dance was held in the School of Arts Hall. Seven new recruits were sworn in—five from Laidley and two from Forest Hill. The Dungarees camped in the recreation reserve.

Recruits: 5

The Dungarees left Laidley on the morning of the 25 November 1915 accompanied by students from the North Laidley School. A long march over the Liverpool Range to Rosewood was ahead of them. Morning tea was provided at the Grandchester Hall on the other side of the range, before moving on to Calvert for lunch.

Rosewood was their destination for the night. Initially the men went to the showgrounds where their camp had already been set up for them and afternoon tea was provided. Later that afternoon, the Ipswich Model Band led march up John Street to the post office and on to the school grounds where a reception was held. Lieutenant Binnie reported that they had left Stanthorpe with eight men and now had 69.

A social event was held in the Farmers Hall and new recruits were sworn in.

Recruits: 3

News of the recruitment march inspired men throughout the district to join up. Meetings had been held in the nearby towns of Esk and Blackbutt and in the Fassifern district towns of Boonah, Engeslburg (Kalbar) and Harrisville. Those inspired to join the march travelled to Ipswich by various means. The largest of these groups—23 from the Fassifern district—departed Boonah on Friday 26 November 1915. A parade up High Street and a farewell social had been held in the Boonah School of Arts Hall the previous evening. These recruits were taken by car to Ipswich to join the Dungarees the same day.

The Dungarees marched through Mount Marrow and Walloon, with afternoon tea served by the Walloon Shire Council.

Meanwhile, preparations in Ipswich began with everyone gathering at the Town Hall. Then the Fassifern recruits, the Boonah band, a local pipers‘ band, cadets, bugle band, scouts, other military forces and citizens of Ipswich all marched to the One Mile Bridge just outside of Ipswich town centre. There was great excitement when the band of Dungarees came into view. After a brief rest, everyone marched back into town, gathering in the grounds of St Paul’s Church.

Recruits:

On the afternoon of 26 November 1915, Ipswich shops and businesses were gaily decorated and closed to allow employees to participate in welcoming the Dungarees.

Men from the North Ipswich Railway Workshops had joined in too. A platform was erected in the grounds of St Paul’s Church on which ladies of the Patriotic Committee were seated along with local school children. Lieutenant Binnie was pleasantly surprised to find his wife and little daughter Myrra seated amongst the ladies. The school children sang patriotic songs and further speeches were made.

The men made their way to the Drill Shed in Queens Park to camp for the night. Rain caused the cancellation of a street parade that night, but a recruitment meeting proceeded and a further 44 men were sworn in.

On Saturday 27 November 1915 the men were given the freedom of the city, including a swim in the public baths. A church parade was held on Sunday 28 November 1915 followed by a band recital in Queens Park.

Eight men who were recruited in Ipswich chose to take the train to Brisbane rather than join in the march.

The following morning, the Dungarees marched out of town over Limestone Hill enabling the students from Ipswich Girls‘ Grammar School to bid them a final farewell.

Recruits:

The Dungarees marched along Ipswich Road on the morning of 29 November 1915, stopping first at Bundamba where they were welcomed by waiting townsfolk and school students. The ladies of the Bundamba Patriotic Committee provided refreshments. Two more recruits joined up after a heartfelt speech from the father of a recently deceased soldier. An honour board at the school was unveiled.

Recruits: 1

The Dungarees marched on through Ebbw Vale towards Redbank. A troop train came into view—its occupants heading for the Dardanelles were waving enthusiastically from the train. Then students from the Dinmore State School joined in the march to Redbank where a railway navvy threw down his shovel and joined them.

Recruits: 0, plus 1 nominated but not enlisted

By the time the Dungarees reached Goodna, they were hot and dusty. They were welcomed at the Goodna Recreation Reserve by the chairman of the Purga Shire Council. The crowds included children from the Redbank and Goodna State Schools, the Goodna Convent School and a large number of residents travelling in buggies.

As soon as the reception was over, the men made a dash for the river banks where temporary dressing sheds had been erected. A swim cooled them off before lunch in the shade of the gum trees, supplied by the local meat and smallgoods manufacturers. The newspapers reported 130 Dungarees arriving in Goodna, but as Lieutenant Binnie pointed out, there were often discrepancies in the numbers. This was because not all men nominating passed the medical test, while others nominated, but deferred their enlistment until arrangements were made with their employers.

On 29 November 1915, the last leg of the day was the march from Goodna to Oxley. At Darra the Dungarees were met by members of the Sherwood, Indooroopilly, Toowong and Taringa Rifle Clubs. Then the No1 Depot Expeditionary Forces Band and the Sherwood Boy Scouts joined in, as well as the senior students from the Oxley and Sherwood schools and the Scout nurses.

The Mayor of South Brisbane, Alderman Davey, welcomed them, along with numerous other local government representatives. An open air dinner was held in the grounds of the Oxley State School followed by a campfire concert, before the men rolled into their camp beds for the night.

Recruits: 0 plus 1 nominated but not enlisted

The final day’s march from Oxley to Brisbane began early on 30 November 1915. Participation from local schools, bands and scouting groups, provided a festive atmosphere for the Dungarees. They stopped for refreshments at Moorooka around 8am and moved on to the Junction Park State School for breakfast by 8.45am.

They marched along Ipswich Road reaching the Woolloongabba five-ways at 10.30am on 30 November 1915 where the Mayor of South Brisbane, Alderman J Davey and his aldermen greeted them. Canon Hay of St Andrew’s Church, South Brisbane said that he was pleased to see that Warwick headed the list of the Dungarees, having lived there previously. He congratulated them for taking part in what he thought would be the most glorious victory the Empire had ever achieved.

A large crowd gathered and cheers rang out, as did the fog-signals from the trains in the Woolloongabba railway yards (now part of the South East Busway). The Railway Band led the march of the Dungarees down Stanley Street on 30 November 1915. Enthusiastic crowds gathered in every doorway and veranda, and flags fluttered overhead.

At around 11.20am the Dungarees reached the South Brisbane Baths. After a short swim they were provided with soft drinks, cakes and cigarettes. The Governor, Sir Hamilton Goold Adams, met the men at the baths and congratulated them on supporting the cause which Great Britain was fighting for. He marched with the men and members of the South Brisbane Town Council to the Victoria Bridge.

On the northern side of the bridge the Dungarees were met by the Mayor of North Brisbane, Alderman G. Down, and his aldermen on 30 November 1915 before a triumphal march down Queen Street accompanied by many khaki-clad troops. Tramcars were stopped in Queen Street, and people climbed onto them to get a better view. The windows of buildings either side of the street, as well as the roadways, were filled with spectators, as the parade made its way to Albert Square (now King George Square).

The Premier, the Hon. T J Ryan, attended the final phase of the march, officiated by the Mayor of Brisbane, who congratulated the recruits on the example they had shown to other young men, and hoped that their sacrifice would encourage others to join up. The final number of recruits was reported at 150. Each man had been presented with a gum leaf with the word Anzac written on it, to carry in their pockets.

A celebratory lunch was provided at the Old Government House Domain, overlooking the Brisbane River. In the afternoon, the Dungarees marched to Central railway station and caught the train to Enoggera Camp, where their training would commence.

Most of the Dungarees had expected to serve at Gallipoli, but troops were withdrawn from there by 20 December 1915. Instead the Dungarees were sent to either the Middle East or the Western Front. Most of the Dungarees were recruited into the 11th Reinforcements of the 25th Battalion. Others were given specialist roles in other battalions depending on their qualifications and work experience.

On Sunday 12 March 1916, prior to their departure from Brisbane, the 11th Reinforcements were taken on a boat trip to Redcliffe on the „Beaver“. They marched from Thompson’s Paddock at Enoggera to the train, and then to the Central railway station, marching down to the dock for the trip. Food and drink were provided by a range of local companies keen to show their support for the soldiers.

Officially the exact date, ship and route of the men’s departure overseas were not publicised. However, news was often spread by less official means; for example, Dungaree Sydney Marsh of Silkstone cabled his parents and they forwarded the news to the Queensland Times newspaper. Marsh indicated that the 11th reinforcements of the 25th Battalion had arrived in Egypt on 11 May 1916 and were expecting to head to the front in France soon.

Despite the strong support for the march shown along the route by the townsfolk, the Brisbane Courier expressed disappointment in the overall numbers of men recruited, given the high recruitment expectations demanded by the Australian Government. However, the Courier praised those who had enlisted through the march as „splendid“ „high-spirited patriots“ in contrast to the „lethargic“ „craven“ „slackers“ who were able to enlist but did not heed the call.

In April 1998, a re-enactment March of the Dungarees left Warwick on 13 April to arrive as part of the Anzac Day march in Brisbane on 25 April. Warwick Shire Council celebrated the occasion by planting an avenue of 28 native Australian trees to commemorate the 28 original „dungarees“ who departed from Warwick on 16 November 1915. A plaque was unveiled on 13 April 1998 by Bruce Scott, Minister for Veteran Affairs and Eric Abraham (Queensland’s last surviving World War I veteran).

In 2015, as part of the Centenary Commemorations for World War I, army cadets re-enacted the March of the Dungarees, starting at Warwick on 12 December 2015 and marching 239 kilometres to Brisbane arriving on 19 December 2015.

This Wikipedia article was originally based on (3 December 2015) by Murray Johnson published by the State of Queensland under licence (accessed on 3 February 2016).

Media related to March of the Dungarees at Wikimedia Commons

Yolanda Be Cool

Yolanda Be Cool is an Australian band made up of Andrew Stanley and Matthew Handley. Similarly to Zeds Dead, the name „Yolanda Be Cool“ is also a reference to a scene in Quentin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction.

In 2010, they collaborated with Australian producer DCUP (real name Duncan MacLennan) to release an international single „We No Speak Americano“ on the indie Australian label Sweat It Out they founded, sampling on a 1956 Neapolitan language hit „Tu vuò fà l’americano“ by Renato Carosone and written by Carosone and Nicola „Nisa“ Salerno.

„We No Speak Americano“ sold over 5 million copies and amassed over 200 million YouTube views worldwide. It topped the British, Spanish, German, Mexican, Argentinian, Swedish, Danish, Swiss, and Ecuadorian charts, and reached the Top 5 in Australia, France, Italy, Spain and Norway. It was also a chart hit in Colombia, New Zealand, Mexico, Peru, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Venezuela, Honduras, Costa Rica and several other countries. The video was directed by Andy Hylton. Prior to the hit, they had collaborated with DCUP when he remixed their hit „Afro Nuts“ in 2009.

The name is a reference to the scene in the film Pulp Fiction, where the character Jules (played by Samuel L. Jackson) tells a female armed robber named Yolanda (played by Amanda Plummer) „Be cool!“ Yolanda Be Cool received two 2010 ARIA Music Awards nominations which include, „Best Dance Release“ and „Most Popular Australian Single“ for „We No Speak Americano“.

In 2011, Yolanda Be Cool collaborated with Crystal Waters on a track called ‚Le Bump‘ which then made it onto their debut album „Ladies and Mentalmen“ released by Sweat It Out! and DIM MAK in 2013. The album featured indigenous Australian icon Gurrumul, house royalty Crystal Waters and Barbara Tucker, soul legend Betty Wright and US up n coming rap star Nola Darling. Also, Yolanda Be Cool notably remixed Cyndi Lauper’s song „Girls Just Want to Have Fun“, taken from the 30th anniversary reissue of her album She’s So Unusual.

In 2015, they got back in the studio with DCUP to make „Sugar Man“, an edit of a song by Rodriguez that went on to go platinum in Australia before writing Soul Makossa, which samples Manu Dibango’s saxophone. The song currently has over 1 million plays on YouTube and claimed number 2 on Beatport’s Top Ten in addition to being the sixth most sold House record of the year.

Yolanda Be Cool released „From Me to You“ with DCUP on Spinnin‘ Records on 8 February 2016.

The Ames Brothers

The Ames Brothers waren ein US-amerikanisches Vokalquartett der 1950er Jahre.

Das Quartett mit dem Geburtsnamen Urick bestand aus Joe (* 3. Mai 1924 – 2007), Gene (* 13. Februar 1925 – 1997), Vic (20. Mai 1926 – 23. Januar 1978) und Ed Ames, die in Armut aufwuchsen und 1947 ins Showgeschäft einstiegen.

Nach dem Gewinn verschiedener lokaler Talentwettbewerbe kamen sie über Auftritte in Bostoner Nachtclubs nach New York und Los Angeles. 1948 erschien ihre erste Platte „A Tree In The Meadow“, auf der sie als Begleitchor der Sängerin Monica Lewis zu hören waren, die Single erreichte Platz 22 der Bestseller-Charts. Im gleichen Jahr erschienen auf dem Decca-Sublabel Coral Records ihre ersten Solo-Platten, aber ihre ersten Singles waren erfolglos. Erst ihre fünfte Singleveröffentlichung „You, You, You Are The One“ konnte im Februar 1949 Platz 23 der Charts erreichen. Den Durchbruch ihres Harmonie-Gesangs hatten sie 1950 mit dem Doppelhit „Sentimental me“ / „Rag Mop“, die Titel erreichten Platz 3 bzw. Platz 1 der Charts. Die Ames Brothers hatten zwischen Juni 1950 und März 1953 weitere 15 Charthits. Ihre größten Erfolge bei Coral Records in dieser Zeit waren 1950 „Can Anyone Explain“ auf Platz 7 und „Undecided“ (1951) mit Les Brown – komponiert von Sid Robin – auf Platz 2. Anfang 1953 unterschrieben sie einen Plattenvertrag bei RCA Records, und bereits ihre erste Single bei RCA „You You You“ wurde im Sommer 1953 ein großer Erfolg und erreichte Platz 2 der Singles-Charts. Auch die Titel „The Man With The Banjo“ und „The Naughty Lady Of Shady Lane“ waren Top-10-Hits. Die Ames Brothers erhielten daraufhin eine eigene Fernsehshow, die wiederum mehrere Songs zu Hits machte. Auf allen RCA-Aufnahmen wurden sie vom Orchester Hugo Winterhalter begleitet.

Mit dem Beginn der Rock-’n’-Roll-Ära ließ der Erfolg nach. 1957 landeten sie mit „Melodie D’Amour“ einen Top-20-Hit.

Gegen Ende ihrer Karriere hatten die Ames Brothers Anfang 1958 auch in der Bundesrepublik einen Hit mit „Melodie d’amour“, der Platz 16 der Singles-Charts erreichte.

1959 löste sich die Gruppe auf; dies bedeutete das Karriere-Ende für drei der Brüder, während Ed sowohl als Solist weitere Erfolge hatte wie als Schauspieler arbeitete.

Auswahlkriterium: Alle Titel in den Top 20 der US-Bestselling-Charts

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