Mafia initiation ritual

To become a full member of the Mafia or Cosa Nostra – to become a “man of honour” – an aspiring member has to pass a Mafia initiation ritual. The ceremony involves significant ritual, oaths, blood, and an agreement is made to follow the rules of the Mafia as presented to the inductee. The first known account of the ceremony dates back to 1877 in Sicily.

The typical sequence of the ceremony according to several distinct descriptions has common features. First, the new recruit is led into the presence of other members and presented by a member; the association is explained including its basic rules; then his finger is pricked with a needle by the officiating member; a few drops of blood are spilled on a card bearing the likeness of a saint; the card is set on fire; finally, while the card is passed rapidly from hand to hand to avoid burns, the novice takes an oath of loyalty to the Mafia family.

The first known account of the ceremony dates back to 1877 in Monreale in an article in the Giornale di Sicilia in an account about the Stuppagghiari, an early Mafia-type organisation. Other early accounts were during a trial against the Fratellanza (Brotherhood) in Agrigento (1884) and the Fratuzzi (Little Brothers) in Bagheria (1889).

One of the first life accounts of an initiation ceremony was given by Bernardino Verro, a leader of the Fasci Siciliani, a popular social movement of democratic and socialist inspiration, which arose in Sicily in the early 1890s. In order to give the movement teeth and to protect himself from harm, Verro became a member of the Fratuzzi in Corleone. In a memoir written many years later, he describes the initiation ritual he underwent in the spring of 1893:

„[I] was invited to take part in a secret meeting of the Fratuzzi. I entered a mysterious room where there were many men armed with guns sitting around a table. In the center of the table there was a skull drawn on a piece of paper and a knife. In order to be admitted to the Fratuzzi, [I] had to undergo an initiation consisting of some trials of loyalty and the pricking of the lower lip with the tip of the knife: the blood from the wound soaked the skull.“

Soon after Verro broke with the Mafia and – according to police reports – became their most bitter enemy. He was killed by the Mafia in 1915 when he was the mayor of Corleone.

The first known account of the ritual in the United States was provided in 1963 by Joe Valachi, who was initiated in 1930, in his testimony for the McClellan Committee, officially known as the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operation of the senate in the United States. Valachi’s was a high-profile case, and helped convince the country of the existence of the organization in the United States called the Cosa Nostra, also known as the Mafia. He provided the FBI with first-hand information about the inside of the Mafia, including one of the first ever descriptions of the induction ceremony.

The Mafia solicits specific people for membership—one cannot just choose to join up. In Tommaso Buscetta’s testimony for the Pizza Connection Trial, he was asked what he did to get into the Cosa Nostra. He answered, “I didn’t make out any application to become a member—I was called, I was invited.” Joe Valachi had an extended courtship before he finally consented to join. He was eventually swayed by the argument of Mafioso Bobby Doyle, who said that a solo career of crime was much more dangerous. Doyle said to Valachi, “Join us and you will be made. You will earn money and you are not to steal anymore.” Things had been getting difficult for Valachi in terms of frequent arrests and other consequences of his lifestyle, and he acknowledged the logic of Doyle’s argument.

The ceremony is a dinner or a meeting. Several people may be inducted at once. When inducted, “they are ‘made’ or ‘baptized’ or ‘get their badges’”. Other terms used are becoming “wiseguys”, “friends”, “good fellows”, “one of us” or “straightened out”.

Valachi gave the most well-known description of the ceremony:

“I sit down at the table. There is wine. Someone put a gun and a knife in front of me. The gun was a .38 and the knife was what we call a dagger. Maranzano [the boss] motions us up and we say some words in Italian. Then Joe Bonanno pricks my finger with a pin and squeezes until the blood comes out. What then happens, Mr. Maranzano says, ‘This blood means that we are now one Family. You live by the gun and the knife and you die by the gun and the knife.’”

Valachi was inducted with three others. There were about 40 members present, so the new initiates could “meet the family.”

During the Patriarca crime family’s induction of 1989 that was taped by the FBI, several other details were discovered. Before the inductee Tortora took the oath, he was told that he would be baptized. “You were baptized when you were a baby, your parents did it. But now, this time, we gonna baptize you.” The baptism seems to represent the new stage of life that is beginning. This is one example of the family mentality of the mafia. It is implied that the Mafia is taking the place of the member’s family, of his parents. Further evidence of this mentality can be seen when Tortora is asked if he would kill his brother for the Mafia. This mentality most likely comes about because members are giving their entire lives to the organization. The oaths themselves talk about the family bond, and we can conjecture that the rules of secrecy represent the family loyalty as well as a sense of self-preservation. Despite rivalries, all of the mafia families are seen to be related. Even between groups in Sicily and New York City, there is a sense of brotherhood.

Another variation from Valachi’s description found in the 1989 induction recording is when inductee Flamaro specifically had his trigger finger pricked which affirms that there is definite symbolism in the gesture. After this, a compadre/buddy was chosen for him, and, unlike other ceremonies described, no mention was made of burning a picture of a saint. In Buscetta’s testimony, he said that when his finger was pricked, the blood was transferred to a picture of a saint, which was then burned. Buscetta then swore that if he disobeyed the rules, “my flesh would burn like this saint.” A variation on this oath is “As burns this saint, so will burn my soul. I enter alive and I will have to get out dead.” Jimmy Fratianno, inducted in 1947, described the Capo pricking his finger and saying, “This drop of blood symbolizes your birth into our family, we are one until death.” The ceremony is finished with a kiss administered to both cheeks of the new mafiosi.

In the past, it was said that to complete the induction process, the potential member was to kill someone, though the practice seems to have died out for the most part.

The Mafia Code is remarkably similar to that of not only other crime organizations and societies, but also to that present in American Prisons. Donald Cressey notes that it is basically the same as the thieves code, which he outlines as having five basic parts:

„1. Be loyal to members of the organization. Do not interfere with each other’s interest. Do not be an informer….

2. Be rational. Be a member of the team. Don’t engage in battle if you can’t win….The directive extends to personal life.

3. Be a man of honor. Respect womanhood and your elders. Don’t rock the boat….

4. Be a stand-up guy. Keep your eyes and ears open and your mouth shut. Don’t sell out….The ‘stand-up guy’ shows courage and ‘heart.’ He does not whine or complain in the face of adversity, including punishment, because ‘If you can’t pay, don’t play.’

5. Have class. Be independent. Know your way around the world.”

The members were also instructed at the Patriarca ceremony to not let this whole thing inflate their egos and change them. The mafia wanted them for who they were when they were chosen; humility is implied.

Jimmy Fratianno was inducted to the mafia in 1947, and swore an oath similar to Valachi. Three rules were given to him: “You must never betray any of the secrets of this Cosa Nostra. You must never violate the wife or children of another member. You must never become involved with narcotics.”

In the Patriarca ceremony, Joseph Russo also explained that you do not mess around with sisters, wives, or girlfriends, unless you have “honorable” intentions.

Buscetta also related how he was instructed about the “appropriate manner” to act. He said he was told to “be silent, not to look at other men’s wives or women, not to steal and especially, at all times when I was called, I had to rush, leaving whatever I was doing.” The penalty for breaking these laws was death.

The most important rule is considered to be the Omertà, the oath of silence. It is a frequently broken rule, as seen by the FBI informants, but also punishable by death. Biagio DiGiacomo emphasized the severity of Omertà when he said, “It’s no hope, no Jesus, no Madonna, nobody can help us if we ever give up this secret to anybody, any kinds of friends of mine, let’s say. This thing cannot be exposed.”

Rules about drugs are reiterated in many accounts, where it is detailed that members must abstain from both using and selling drugs of any kind. In Joe Bonanno’s 1983 autobiography he stated that neither he nor his family participated in the drug trade, calling it a “filthy business”. These rules are often broken, as evidenced by the FBI, and it has been questioned whether this rule was ever enforced, or if it is simply a myth. Regardless, in more recent times there is little support for any abstinence from drug rackets on the part of the mafia. In New York City, the five crime families had a monopoly on the drug trade.

Introductions were very particularly laid out. People not of the Mafia were introduced as “a friend of mine”. Members were referred to as “A friend of ours.” Never were they allowed to say who they were in an introduction, except in particular circumstances. When introduced, members no longer follow the tradition of kissing, because it attracted too much attention from authorities.

In 1963, former mobster Joseph Valachi provided his testimony for the McClellan Committee, officially known as the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operation of the senate in the United States. Valachi’s was a high-profile case, and helped convince the country of the existence of the organization in the United States called the Cosa Nostra, also known as the Mafia. He provided the FBI with first-hand information about the inside of the Mafia, including one of the first ever descriptions of the induction ceremony.

The validity of Valachi’s testimony in this area is an issue, as it is with any case of this sort. Many other secret societies have similar rituals, and given the secrecy and sacredness surrounding the induction rites, Valachi could potentially have been drawing from other groups’ ceremonies and rituals. It is also possible that the nature of secret societies makes their rituals similar. Other accounts since, particularly the actual recording obtained of such a ceremony, have more or less confirmed Valachi’s testimony.

On October 29, 1989, in Medford, Massachusetts, the FBI successfully taped an initiation ceremony of New England’s Patriarca crime family. There has been some controversy surrounding this bugging, given that the warrant for the ‘roaming bug’ used to tape the ceremony was given on false information.

One source details that the members involved in this ceremony were the consiglieri Joseph Russo, who conducted parts of the ceremony; mobster capos Biagio DiGiacomo, who administered the oaths; Robert F. Carrozza; Vincent M. Ferrara; Charles Quintina—all from Boston—and Matthew Guglielmetti, from the Providence, Rhode Island area; and inductees Robert DeLuca, Vincent Federico, Carmen Tortora, and Richard Floramo. Another newspaper article states that there were 17 mafiosi present, including the current boss, Raymond Patriarca, Jr., and other high-ranking officials in the family.

The FBI surveillance of this ceremony was the tailend of a five-year investigation about the crime families in the area, which resulted in a host of indictments and arrests. Among those indicted were Patriarca, DiGiacomo, Russo, Tortora, Ferrara, Carrozza, and Guglielmetti, all of whom were present at the ceremony. Additional big names of those that were indicted are Antonio L. Spagnola, Nicholas Bianco, Louis Failla, and John E. Farrell. Information from the ceremony was used in the case against the Mafiosi.

FBI Boston Mafia specialist Thomas A. Hughes speculated that the Patriarca crime family lost honor and favor as a result of the sacred ceremony being taped under their watch.

Ishak Sahabdeen

Ishak Shahabdeen is a Sri Lankan double international who represented his country in both Cricket and Hockey.[citation needed]

Sahabdeen was educated at St. Sylvester’s College, Kandy where he represented the college in Cricket and Hockey. He was adjudged outstation cricketer of the year in 1974

In Hockey he captained the under 16 and 19 teams of St. Sylvester’s and led them to the Kandy Schools Championship in 1974. He scored 16 goals against Nugawela Central College. In 1973 he represented Sri Lanka Schools and was captain in 1976.

He moved to S. Thomas‘ College, Mt Lavinia Sri Lanka, where he won colours in Cricket, Hockey and Athletics. In Athletics he was part of a relay team which included rugby players PL Munasinghe, Devaka Fernando and Michael Jayasekera.

He played First XI cricket in a team captained by Sasi Ganeshan. Other team mates included Saliya Ahangama, Guy de Alwis, Arittha R Wikramanayake and Michael Jayasekera. In 1976, he was a member of the Sri Lanka under 19 team that toured Pakistan.

Sahabdeen played first class cricket for the Tamil Union Cricket Club under the captaincy of the late S.S. Kumar in the P. Saravanamuttu Trophy tournament. He transferred his allegiance to the Moors SC and was captain of the side in 1985.

Sahabdeen played for the Burgher Recreation Club. The club won the Andriesz Shield, Pioneer Cup and seven-a-side Pettah Pharmacy Gold Cup. He scored 120 goals in one calendar year while representing BRC, Mackwoods and Mercantile Hockey Association.

He first played for Sri Lanka in a one day fixture against Zimbabwe in 1983, toured Sharjah in 1984 for the first ever Asia Cup against India and Pakistan and played .[citation needed]His next assignment in a one day game against New Zealand in 1984.[citation needed]

In 2005, he represented Sri Lanka in Indoor Cricket in the Masters Tournament in New Zealand.[citation needed]

While still a schoolboy he represented the country against the visiting West German team. He also represented Sri Lanka at the Asian Games. In 1985 and 1986, he represented Sri Lanka against Singapore and Oman twice and in 1985 captained Sri Lanka against Singapore

Sahabdeen is also a noted snooker player.

Sahabdeen has continued to be involved in sport after retiring and has served as the Chairman of the Tournament Committee of the Mercantile Cricket Association, Vice President of the Association of Cricket Umpires Union and Chairman of the Disciplinary Committee

Кочубей, Пётр Васильевич

Пётр Васи́льевич Кочубе́й (20 января 1880, Рим — 26 января 1918) — гадячский уездный предводитель дворянства, церемониймейстер Высочайшего двора.

Сын камергера Василия Аркадьевича Кочубея (1826—1897) и его второй жены графини Марии Алексеевны Капнист. Имел 3500 десятин при селе Ярославце Глуховского уезда и при слободке Ретике Кролевецкого уезда Черниговской губернии. Младший брат Василий был пирятинским уездным предводителем дворянства.

По окончании курса Санкт-Петербургского университета в 1902 году, поступил на службу по Министерству внутренних дел. 26 сентября 1904 года был избран Гадячским уездным предводителем дворянства. Состоял членом уездного отделения епархиального училищного совета, председателем уездной землеустроительной комиссии, председателем уездного комитета попечительства о народной трезвости и почетным мировым судьей Гадячского округа. 2 апреля 1906 года пожалован придворным званием камер-юнкера. Избирался гласным Пирятинского уездного и Полтавского губернского земских собраний (1907—1916). В должности Гадячского предводителя дворянства пробыл до 1911 года, когда причислился к Министерству внутренних дел. Затем состоял почетным мировым судьей по Пирятинскому уезду, был пожалован в церемониймейстеры.

26 января 1918 года был расстрелян большевиками в Киеве:

В тот самый день, когда погибли в Киеве Гернгросс, Скалон, кн. Голицын и кн. Долгоруков, там же был арестован и другой офицер полка поручик гр. Николай Александрович Мусин-Пушкин. Жил он на квартире своей сестры Любови Александровны Кочубей. Никакого оружия при обыске не было найдено, но красноармейцы все же арестовали гр. Мусин-Пушкина и П. В. Кочубея и увели их ко Дворцу, где, по их словам, им будут выданы новые документы. По дороге к ним присоединили еще несколько других партий арестованных.

Когда они подошли ко Дворцу, площадь перед ним была полна вооруженными красноармейцами и матросами. Один из матросов подошел вплотную к Кочубею и убил его выстрелом из револьвера в затылок.

С 3 июня 1908 года был женат на фрейлине Любови Александровне Мусиной-Пушкиной (р. 1885), дочери камергера графа А. А. Мусина-Пушкина. Их дети:

Peartree House

Peartree House is a Grade II listed building in the Peartree Green area of Southampton, England. The oldest part of the property was built for Francis Mylles, M.P. for Winchester, using stone from the Roman settlement at Clausentum. The most notable former resident of the property was Lieutenant-General Henry Shrapnel who invented the weapon named after him. The property is now used as a care home for patients with mental health problems.

Peartree House was built during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, at the end of the 16th century (probably between 1590 and 1600). Its builder and owner was Francis Mylles, M.P. for Winchester from 1588 to 1593; he was also the tenant of Bitterne Manor, owned by the Bishop of Winchester, from whom Mylles obtained consent to use stone from the Roman fort and settlement at Clausentum, close to which Bitterne Manor stands.

Frances Mylles‘ daughter was married to Captain Richard Smith, who lived in Peartree House in 1617, and who was responsible for the building of nearby Jesus Chapel. Peartree House was occupied by the Mylles family for almost three centuries; the last of the family died in 1780, and it was then passed to members of the Speed and Waring families, who were related to the Mylles. During the early 19th century, the property was extended and the castellated facade was added.

Notable occupiers were Lieutenant-General Henry Shrapnel – inventor of the shell of that name – who died there in 1842; and the Cruickshank family – active in local education matters – who owned the property from 1893 to 1917.

In the 1930s, the land around the house was sold off for development. Southampton Corporation bought the house in 1949, for use as a home for the elderly, adding numerous extensions to the rear. The property is now owned by Fernside Healthcare for use as a care home for patients with mental health problems.

The main house is a Grade II listed building, having been first listed in September 1954.

The house is a long two-storeyed building with a stucco front and a tiled roof behind a castellated parapet. The main (south-eastern) facade has three sash windows on the first floor in the central section and two in each of the wings. The central part is set back, with a ground floor verandah between the projecting wings; the verandah has five wooden archways with Neo-Tudor heads. The wings have iron balconettes to the first floor windows.

Inside the building there are inglenook fireplaces, most of which are now blocked. There are ancient oak beams in the old kitchen and on the top floor.

Synagoge Laupheim

Die ehemalige Synagoge in Laupheim im Landkreis Biberach in Oberschwaben wurde am 7. November 1877 eingeweiht und in der sogenannten Reichskristallnacht am 9. November 1938 zerstört.

Bis 1771 feierte die Jüdische Gemeinde Laupheim ihre Gottesdienste in einem Betsaal im oberen Stockwerk des Hauses Judenberg 30. Im selben Jahr wurde die erste Synagoge in der Südwestecke des 1730 angelegten jüdischen Friedhofs Laupheim, Judenberg 24, erbaut. Von dem Aussehen des Gebäudes ist nichts mehr bekannt. Ein Lageplan lässt eine L-förmige Anlage mit Eingang zum Treppenhaus in Nord-West Richtung vermuten. Im Jahre 1822 wurde die Synagoge abgetragen. Ein Gedenkstein aus dem Jahre 1990 erinnert an die erste Synagoge von Laupheim.

Die zweite Synagoge wurde 1822 an der Ecke Bronner Straße/Synagogenweg erbaut. Sie hatte statische Mängel und musste 1836/37 einem 8696 Gulden teuren Neubau weichen. Die Jüdische Gemeinde Laupheim hatte zu diesem Zeitpunkt 600 bis 700 Gemeindemitglieder. Die Synagoge war vierundzwanzig Meter lang und dreizehn Meter breit. Im Jahre 1877 wurde diese zweite Synagoge wesentlich erweitert und mit einem Kuppeldach, zwei Treppentürmen, großen Rundbogenfenstern und einer Renaissance-Fassade versehen, die dem Gebäude ein repräsentatives Ansehen verliehen. Die Synagoge wurde nach und nach mit einer wertvollen Torarolle, kunstvollen Vorhängen und einem Toraschrein ausgestattet. Friedrich Adler entwarf für sie 1903 ein buntes Glasfenster mit Bleiverglasung.

In der Nacht vom 9. November 1938 wurden die jüdischen Männer in ihren Häusern abgeholt und, von der paramilitärischen SA begleitet, zur Synagoge gebracht. Dort mussten sie eine Hetzrede eines SA-Führers anhören. Danach wurde das Gebäude von SA-Leuten in Brand gesteckt. Während es brannte, mussten die Juden Kniebeugen und sonstige sportliche Übungen ausführen. Die Brandruine wurde kurz darauf abgebrochen. Das Grundstück wurde 1961 mit einem freikirchlich-evangelischen Gotteshaus bebaut. Eine Gedenktafel aus dem Jahre 1958 erinnert an die zweite Laupheimer Synagoge.

Bad Buchau | Kappel | Laupheim


Sarmad Abdul Ghafoor

Sarmad Ghafoor (born November 5, 1975 in London, United Kingdom) is a Pakistani record producer, guitarist, vocalist, and songwriter. He has released two albums, one with Rungg (his former band), and one with Qayaas (his current band). He has also produced albums for a wide variety of artists, including Atif Aslam, Bilal Khan, Nusrat Hussain, Abbas Ali Khan, and Overload. Sarmad is best known for his work producing two platinum albums for Atif Aslam, including Jal Pari.

Sarmad started his production career working in his own studio, SnM Studios in the basement of his parent’s Peshawar, Pakistan home, recording his own band Rungg, and his brother Sajid Ghafoor’s band Still. Later Sarmad moved his studio to Islamabad, where it is located. He has worked with a number of local bands, including Irtaash, Jehangir Aziz Hayat and Saturn. Sarmad is also the producer for Atif Aslam and mixed Qayaas’s Uss Paar. He has also produced jingles for many telecom companies including Warid Pakistan, Telenor, and Mobilink. Sarmad’s production is recognisable and notable for its clarity, loud vocals and present snare and kick drum.

As well as being a producer, Sarmad is also a songwriter, musician and recording artist. Sarmad sings; plays the guitar, Bass, and drums. He’s played Drums, Bass, and Guitars on numerous singles, and albums.

Sarmad has written music scores for documentaries, and short films including Frame, by Hammad Khan. He also compose the song Kaho with Atif Aslam for Shoaib Mansoor’s film Bol. He was also featured in the video of that song with Atif Aslam & Hadiqa Kiani.

Sarmad started working for internews, a non profit organization that fosters independent media in 2003. He set up many radio stations in Pakistan, and trained numerous journalists in how to record and edit. He worked as the technical coordinator for over two years there under Lisa Upton.

Lycurus setosus

Lycurus setosus is a species of grass in the Poaceae family, commonly known as the bristly wolfstail. It is found at high elevations in dry areas of the south western United States, as well as in Bolivia and Argentina.

Lycurus setosus is a perennial mountain grass with a tufted habit. The erect stems have several nodes and grow from 30 cm (12 in) to 50 cm (20 in) in height and may have a few branches. The leaf blades are glabrous and grow up to 10 cm (3.9 in) long but only 2 mm (0.1 in) wide. They are rough or bristly and have a white midrib below. The flower panicles are 4 cm (1.6 in) to 8 cm (3.1 in) long and about 8 mm (0.3 in) wide. They are also bristly. It can be distinguished from the rather similar common wolfstail (Lycurus phleoides) by the erect culms, longer ligules and differently shaped tips to the upper leaves.

Lycurus setosus grows at altitudes of between 570 m (1,870 ft) and 3,400 m (11,200 ft). It is found on arid, free draining land, on mesas and rocky slopes. It occurs in the south western states of the United States and in northern Mexico. A separate population occurs in similar habitats in Argentina and Bolivia.


Viboa (Voetballen Is Bij Ons Aangenaam) was een op 1 juni 1921 opgerichte amateurvoetbalvereniging uit opgerichte amateurvoetbalvereniging uit het dorp Winsum in de gelijknamige gemeente, provincie Groningen, Nederland. Per 1 juli 2016 ging de club een fusie aan met plaatsgenoot VV Hunsingo tot VV Winsum. De thuiswedstrijden werden op ‚Sportpark Schouwerzijlsterweg‘ gespeeld.

Van oudsher is de christelijke voetbalvereniging Viboa de club waar protestantse Winsumers lid van werden. Voor menig Viboa-supporter was het seizoen al geslaagd als hun club de twee jaarlijkse derby’s met de eeuwige rivaal CVVB uit het naburige Bedum wist te winnen.

De zaalvoetbalafdeling van Viboa scheidde zich in 2003 af en ging, samen met de zaalvoetbalafdeling van VV Hunsingo, als Futsal Winsum zelfstandig verder.

De club telde drie clubliederen:

De sportieve historie van Viboa kende pieken en dalen. Zo kwam de club na het kampioenschap in 1967 in de Eerste klasse van de GVB van 1967/68-1995/96 29 seizoenen afwisselend uit in de Derde- en Vierde klasse. In het seizoen 2002/03 speelde het standaardelftal voor het eerst in de Eerste klasse, de hoogst bereikte klasse. Na nog een seizoen (2003/04) in de Tweede klasse, kwam het team vanaf 2004/05 tot en met het laatste seizoen (2015/16) voor de fusie twaalf seizoenen uit in de Eerste klasse zaterdag van het KNVB-district Noord. Met hoofdzakelijk spelers uit het eigen dorp wist het team stand te houden in de noordelijke Eerste Klasse E. In het seizoen 2005/06 wist het zelfs beslag te leggen op de derde periodetitel, wat resulteerde in deelname aan de nacompetitie voor promotie naar de Hoofdklasse. In deze nacompetitie bleek HZVV uit Hoogeveen nog een maatje te groot.

In elke staaf van de grafiek staat van boven naar beneden vermeld:

Onder de staaf staat het jaartal vermeld waarin het seizoen is afgesloten. 15 verwijst naar het seizoen 2014/15 en/of eventueel op het seizoen 1914/15.

Wanneer een staaf leeg is, zijn deze gegevens niet bekend. Het kan ook zijn dat de club dat seizoen niet heeft meegespeeld op het hogere amateurniveau, vroegtijdig de competitie heeft verlaten of uit de competitie is gezet.
In het seizoen 1944/45 was er wegens de Tweede Wereldoorlog geen regulier competitievoetbal, daardoor is deze staaf automatisch leeg.

Spelers van Viboa die in het betaald voetbal terechtkwamen zijn:

VV Ezinge · VV Rood Zwart Baflo · VV SIOS · VV Winsum
Voormalig: VV Adorp · VV Hunsingo · Viboa

Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom

Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom (født 15. juli 1893, død 24. august 1958) var statsminister i Unionen Sør-Afrika fra 30. november 1954 til 24. august 1958.

Han ble født på familiegården i Klipfontein og utdannet seg til advokat. Han ble medlem av parlamentet i 1929 for Waterberg. Han ble valgt til leder for Nasjonalistpartiet 30. november 1954 og ble statsminister i Sør-Afrika. Strijdoms ekstreme politikk resulterte i at fargede ble fratatt sin stemmerett og i «forræderrettssaken» til 156 aktivister, inkludert Nelson Mandela som var involvert i frihetsmanifestet.

Strijdoms regjering hadde også diplomatiske forbindelser med Sovjetunionen. Etter en kort periode i embetet døde han 24. august 1958 i Cape Town.

Der er fremdeles forskjellige monumenter av ham i Sør-Afrika. En byste plassert sentralt i Pretoria kollapset i 2001 og skadet to personer. Hans hus i Nylstroom (nå Modimolle) er nå museum. Deler av den kollapsede bysten finnes også der.

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Bibliotheca Alexandrina

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina (English: Library of Alexandria; Arabic: مكتبة الإسكندرية‎‎ Maktabat al-Iskandarīyah, Egyptian Arabic: [mækˈtæb(e)t eskendeˈɾejjæ]) is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. It is both a commemoration of the Library of Alexandria that was lost in antiquity, and an attempt to rekindle something of the brilliance that this earlier center of study and erudition represented.

The idea of reviving the old library dates back to 1974, when a committee set up by Alexandria University selected a plot of land for its new library, between the campus and the seafront, close to where the ancient library once stood. The notion of recreating the ancient library was adopted by other individuals and agencies. One leading supporter of the project was former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak; UNESCO was also quick to embrace the concept of endowing the Mediterranean region with a center of cultural and scientific excellence. An architectural design competition was organized by UNESCO in 1988 to choose a design worthy of the site and its heritage. The competition was won by Snøhetta, a Norwegian architectural office, from among more than 1,400 entries. The first pledges were made for funding the project at a conference held in 1990 in Aswan: USD $65 million, mostly from the Arab states. Construction work began in 1995 and, after some USD $220 million had been spent, the complex was officially inaugurated on 16 October 2002.

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina is trilingual, containing books in Arabic, English, and French. In 2010, the library received a donation of 500,000 books from the National Library of France, Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF). The gift makes the Bibliotheca Alexandrina the sixth-largest Francophone library in the world. The BA also is now the largest depository of French books in the Arab world, surpassing those of Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, in addition to being the main French library in Africa.

The dimensions of the project are vast: the library has shelf space for eight million books, with the main reading room covering 20,000 square metres (220,000 sq ft) on eleven cascading levels. The complex also houses a conference center; specialized libraries for maps, multimedia, the blind and visually impaired, young people, and for children; four museums; four art galleries for temporary exhibitions; 15 permanent exhibitions; a planetarium; and a manuscript restoration laboratory. The library’s architecture is equally striking. The main reading room stands beneath a 32-meter-high glass-panelled roof, tilted out toward the sea like a sundial, and measuring some 160 m in diameter. The walls are of gray Aswan granite, carved with characters from 120 different human scripts.

The collections at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina were donated from all over the world. The Spanish donated documents that detailed their period of Moorish rule. The French also donated, giving the library documents dealing with the building of the Suez Canal.

The BA/IA partnership is built with the aims to preserve heritage for future generations and to provide universal access to human knowledge. The BA maintains a mirror and external backup of the Internet Archive. The Internet Archive donated five million USD to the BA, including:

The library provides access to print on demand books via the Espresso Book Machine.

The Main Library is a learning space that offers information in all its forms: book collections, periodicals, maps, manuscripts, multimedia, and electronic resources. Most importantly, it offers customized services to all its users, such as students, researchers, disabled people, and the general public. As one of the BA’s main sectors, the Library Sector has many functions, responsibilities, and goals. It seeks to establish itself as an international center of excellence through its collection of books, periodicals, maps, multimedia, and electronic resources, and most importantly, customized services to its users. The BA is a new form of learning space that is designed to bring the community of learners together to partake in knowledge in all its formats. The mind boggling structure and the comfort enhanced interior, combined with the multitude of services, help in creating a first-rate environment that augments the library users learning opportunities, and cultural and intellectual interactions. The open access shelves display the library collection through a reading area which cascades over the seven levels of the library and accommodates 2,000 readers under its roof. Museums, exhibitions, a conference center, and other entities are all within a few steps from the reading area. It is truly a place that appeals to all five senses.

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina contains seven specialized libraries: The Children’s Library, The Young People’s Library, The Microforms Library, The Rare Books and Special Collections Library, The Taha Hussein Library for the visually-impaired, the Nobel Section, and the Arts & Multimedia Library.

The Children’s (CH) Library provides educational, recreational, and cultural resources for children ages 6 to 11. It aims at opening a window for Egyptian children to the world, preparing a generation to face the challenges imposed by the digital age. The main objective of the CH Library are develop the children’s reading, research, and creativity skills through different programs and activities. The CH Library contains a collection of more than 15,000 volumes. This collection includes picture books, easy-to-read books, reference materials, and multimedia items. The collection is available in many languages, covering a wealth of different and intellectually stimulating subjects. A computer lab, monitored by the CH library’s staff, offers a safe environment for children to explore the many exciting websites and to learn how to do research in a library. The Children’s Library includes a reading hall, TV and video corner, computer lab, storytelling and puppet-show theater as well as an artistic and handicrafts corner.

The Mission of the Young People’s Library is „to introduce young people to library resources and information technology, develop their awareness and knowledge, encourage social interaction between young people, and develop their reading and research skills.“ The four main goals of the YP are the following:

Young People’s Library (YP) opens up a vast world of knowledge, entertainment, culture, and information for youth ages 12 to 16 years. The YP Library introduces young adults to modern information technology, develops their global awareness and knowledge, encourages social interaction in and out of the library, and develops their reading and research skills. YP librarians follow school curricula in order to ensure availability of support materials to help students prepare their research assignments using BA resources in print and non-print format. The collection of books in the YP Library covers the same subject areas as the Main Library, but takes into consideration young adults‘ special needs and requirements. The YP Library offers access to digitized books, periodicals, multimedia and e-resources, with free access to the Student Resource Center database covering most subject areas.

The Microforms Library in the BA houses thousands of rare documents and manuscripts preserved on microform. This medium is used as preservation against potential loss or damage resulting from excessive circulation and age. Also, it allows increased access to rare pieces without having to handle the original. The Microforms Library contains 15 distinct main collections, national and Arabic periodicals, and slide collections.

The Rare Books and Special Collections Library contains rare books, maps, momentous documents of renowned figures, as well as a number of personal libraries of celebrities accessible only to postgraduate researchers. The rare book collection comprises over 10,000 books and documents dated between the 16th century and early 20th century. They cover a wide scale of subjects including: philosophy, psychology, religion, social sciences, languages, natural sciences, mathematics, applied sciences, fine arts, literature, geography, history, etc. It is a sub-section of the Manuscript Museum.

The Taha Hussein Library for the Visually Impaired (TH) contains materials for the blind and visually impaired using special software that makes it possible for readers to access all the library’s resources as wells as some web resources. It is named after Taha Hussein, the Egyptian professor of Arabic and literary critic and one of the leading figures of the Arab Renaissance (Nahda) in literature, who was himself blinded at the age of three. The TH Library is equipped with special software packages and equipment that allow its users to access the Library’s Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) and other e-resources, including accessibility compliant websites. The Mission Statement of the TH is as follows; „The Taha Hussein Library is a new concept, opening new horizons for the blind and visually impaired, enabling them to access all the resources the BA has to offer, as well as the resources available on the Internet. The TH Library will introduce the TH users to a new world, providing them with the opportunity to access a vast range of information, independently and quickly.“ There are four eligible groups the TH services: the legally blind, the partially blind (who require a medical or governmental certificate of proof), the both legally deaf and blind, and users with reading disabilities who cannot use standard materials.

The Arts & Multimedia Library is one of Bibliotheca Alexandrina’s specialized libraries and is located on level B3. The library contains a print and audio/visual collection on the Arts, such as Painting, Architecture, Music, Cinema, Theater, Sports and Recreational art, etc. The print collection includes of books, scores, and periodicals; and the audio/visual collection consists of sound recordings, such as CDs, audiotapes, phonograph records, videotapes, DVDs, and open reel, and other formats. The Audiovisual materials covers a broad spectrum of motion pictures, documentary films, educational programs, and self teaching methods on languages and computers. Also included are complete conference proceedings, musical performances, and cultural activities that took place at Bibliotheca Alexandrina. The Audiovisual materials may be used in individual or group study rooms within the library. The Arts & Multimedia Library provides its services to the general public, students, researchers and art connoisseurs. The Arts & Multimedia library is responsible for the acquisition, registration, classification and cataloging of all audiovisual materials of the main and specialized libraries of the BA, in coordination with the other technical units of the BA.

The Arts & Multimedia Library Mission Statement is that it „will be a unique center of knowledge at the heart of the Arab world, Africa, and the Mediterranean region. It will function as an integral part of a fabric of information and learning that stretches across the nation and the world.“

Contains book collections of Nobel Prize Laureates in Literature from 1901 to present. The Nobel Section was inaugurated by Queen Silvia of Sweden and Queen Sonja of Norway on 24 April 2002. The Nobel Section is dedicated to serving mainly scholars and researchers. It is furnished with a replica of the furniture and lighting designed specially for the Nobel Institute in Stockholm (opened in 1918) and for the meeting room of the Swedish Cabinet. There are strict guidelines to using the NS including a one hour time limit per visit. The Nobel Section has three parts. The Nobel Room is the main access point for researchers to access the collection. It houses the works of Nobel Laureates since 1901 in the winner’s original language with many translations, mostly in Arabic, English, and French. The Rad Rausing Auditorium is named for the Swedish Rausing family who were large donors to the creation of the Nobel Section. The Söderberg Lounge, named for the Söderberg family, also donors instrumental in the creation of the Nobel Section. The Lounge is where users can access the Nobel e-Museum, a virtual museum consisting of digital information about Prizes awarded since 1901.

Established in 2001, the BA Antiquities Museum is the first archeological museum to be situated within a library. The primary aims of the museum are to promote research, creativity, and cultural awareness. Holding approximately 1,316 artifacts, the Antiquities Museum collection provides a glimpse into Egyptian history from the Pharaonic era to the conquest of Alexander the Great to the Roman civilizations before the advent of Islam across Egypt. The collection includes underwater antiquities from the Mediterranean seabed near the Eastern Harbour and the Bay of Abukir.

The museum provides descriptions of artifacts in three languages: English, Arabic, and French.

The Manuscript Museum provides visitors and researchers with rare manuscripts and books. Established in 2001, the Manuscript Museum contains the world’s largest collection of digital manuscripts. It is an academic institution that is affiliated to the Library of Alexandria. The stated aims of the museum are to preserve heritage, foster human cadres in the conservation and restoration of manuscripts, and create a generation of new restorers.

The Manuscript Museum operates alongside the Manuscript Center, which provides digital access to more than 6,000 rare books, maps, and documents within the museum’s collection. There are three sections housed within the museum:

This museum contains many different personal belongings of the Egyptian president Anwar Al Sadat. The collections include some of his military robes, his Nobel Prize medal, his copy of the Qur’an, a few of his handwritten letters, pictures of him and his family, and the blood stained military robe he wore the day of his assassination. The museum also contains a recording in his voice of part of the Qur’an and assorted newspaper articles written about him.

See History of science

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina hosts fifteen permanent exhibitions, ten of which are contemporary Egyptian art exhibitions.

Permanent Contemporary Egyptian Art Exhibitions:

The culturama hall consists of a huge 180-degree panoramic interactive computer screen with a diameter of 10 meters that is made up of nine separate flat screens arranged in a semicircle and nine video projectors controlled by a single computer. Culturama has enabled the display of information that could never have been displayed clearly using a regular computer display system.

It was developed by the Egyptian Center for Documentation of Cultural and Natural Heritage (CULTNAT) and holds its patent in 2007.

It displayed 3 periods from the history of Egypt:

Virtual Immersive Science and Technology Applications. It uses CAVE Technology. VISTA features several projects including

The Digital Assets Repository (DAR) is a system developed at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA) by the International School of Information Science (ISIS) to create and maintain digital library collections and preserve them to future generations, as well as providing free public access to the library’s digitized collections through a web-based search and browsing facilities via DAR’s website.

The current director is Ismail Serageldin. He also chairs the Boards of Directors for each of the BA’s affiliated research institutes and museums and is a professor at Wageningen University in the Netherlands.

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina held a variety of symposiums in 2011 in support of the Egyptian community and emphasizing the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, the Egyptian Constitution and Democratic Government in Arab nations. The library also displays a photo gallery of the January 25, 2011 revolution and is working to document it in a wide variety of formats.

Criticism of the library comes chiefly from two angles. Many allege that the library is a white elephant impossible for modern Egypt to sustain, and serves as little more than a vanity project for the Egyptian government. Furthermore, there are fears that censorship, long the bane of Egyptian academia, would affect the library’s collection. In addition, the building’s elaborate architecture (which imitates a rising Sun) upset some who believed too much money was being spent on construction rather than the library’s actual collection. Due to the lack of available funds, the library had only 500,000 books in 2002, low compared to other national libraries. (However, in 2010 the library received an additional 500,000 books from the Bibliothèque nationale de France.) It has been estimated that it will take 80 years to fill the library to capacity at the current level of funding. The library relies heavily on donations to buy books for its collections.

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