Schönenbuch

Luftansicht von Schönenbuch

Schönenbuch (Baseldeutsch: Schönebuech) ist eine politische Gemeinde im Bezirk Arlesheim des Kantons Basel-Landschaft in der Schweiz.

Schönenbuch liegt im Sundgau auf 355 m ü. M. und ist flächenmässig die zweitkleinste Gemeinde des Kantons Basel-Landschaft. Das Dorf ist auf drei Seiten von Frankreich (Gemeinden Neuwiller und Hagenthal-le-Bas) umschlossen. Einzig im Nordosten hat sie Anschluss an die Baselbieter Gemeinde Allschwil. Die Fläche des Gemeindegebiets beträgt 136 Hektaren, davon sind 71 % Landwirtschaftsfläche, 27 % Siedlungen und 2 % Wald.

Schönenbuch wurde erstmals 1315 in einer Urkunde erwähnt. Der alemannische Weiler wurde nach einem nahegelegenen Buchengehölz benannt. Im Mittelalter besass das Basler Kloster St. Klara in Schönenbuch einen Hof, welcher wiederholt den Besitzer wechselte und im 17. Jahrhundert an den Stand Solothurn fiel. Da Schönenbuch stets unter der Oberhoheit des Bischofs von Basel stand, teilte es das Schicksal der bischöflichen Vogtei Birseck: 1792 Teil der Raurachischen Republik, 1793 französisch, ab 1815 baslerisch und seit 1832/33 Teil des Kantons Baselland. Kirchlich war Schönenbuch bis 1781 mit Hagenthal und ab 1781 mit Allschwil verbunden und besass eine Kapelle. 1825 erhielt es eine eigene Kirche und 1837 einen eigenen Pfarrer. 1862 wurde Schönenbuch eine selbständige Pfarrei. Dank der Nähe zur Stadt Basel hat sich Schönenbuch seit dem Zweiten Weltkrieg vom Bauerndorf zu einem begehrten Wohnort entwickelt.

Silberner Grund und darin eine rote Buche auf grünem Dreiberg. Die Buche steht für den Gemeindenamen -buch(e) und der Dreiberg weist auf die Höhenlage des Dorfes hin. Das offizielle Wappen wurde jedoch erst 1945 eingeführt. Die Flagge ist weiss-rot.

39 % der Bevölkerung sind römisch-katholisch, 32 % reformiert. Der Ausländeranteil beträgt 8.4 %.

In der Gemeinde wird noch viel Landwirtschaft betrieben. Die Landwirte von Schönenbuch bewirtschafteten einen guten Teil ihrer Felder auf Elsässer Boden und führen mit entsprechender Bewilligung (Zollfreipass) die Frucht über die Grenze in die Schweiz. Der grösste Arbeitgeber in der Gemeinde ist das 1973 gegründete Logistikunternehmen Dima Service AG mit Hauptsitz in Schönenbuch, das mit den Filialen über 100 Mitarbeitende beschäftigt.

Schönenbuch ist durch die Buslinie 33 der Basler Verkehrs-Betriebe (BVB) via Allschwil mit der Stadt Basel verbunden. Strassen führen nach Allschwil und ins französische Neuwiller.

Schönenbuch wird in der ersten Zeile des Baselbieterlieds, der inoffiziellen Hymne des Kantons Basel-Landschaft, erwähnt. Diese Ehre verdankt des dem Umstand, dass es bis zum Anschluss des Laufentals die westlichste Gemeinde im Kanton war.

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Ehemalige Gemeinden: Biel | Benken

Kanton Basel-Landschaft | Bezirke des Kantons Basel-Landschaft | Gemeinden des Kantons Basel-Landschaft

Jens Christian Hansen

Jens Christian Hansen (født 5. mai 1932 i Bodø, død 8. mai 2014) var en norsk geograf.

I starten av forskerkarrieren virket Hansen innen den franske regionalgeografiske skole. Hans hovedfagsoppgave i geografi hentet materiale fra Dombes i Frankrike og var basert på et lengre forskningsopphold med fransk statsstipendium. I 1959 tok han embetseksamen med hovedfag i geografi ved Universitetet i Oslo, der han også virket som universitetslektor i årene 1962 til 1964.

Hansens forskningsinteresser har senere ligget innen regional utvikling i Norge og spørsmål knyttet til befolkningsutvikling og bosettingsendring i Norge. Fra 1965 arbeidet Hansen som universitetslektor i geografi ved Universitetet i Bergen. Geografifaget i har i Bergen vært nært knyttet til Norges Handelshøyskole, der Hansen også var dosent mellom 1970 og 1972. Hansen ble i 1970 dr.philos. ved Universitetet i Bergen med avhandlingen Administrative grenser og tettstedsvekst. Fra 1973 var Hansen professor i geografi ved Universitetet i Bergen. Her har han særlig beskjeftiget seg med industristedenes rolle i den norske samfunnsutviklingen, regionalpolitikk og den norske bosettings- og befolkningsutviklingen i etterkrigstiden. Mot slutten av sin yrkeskarriere studerte han flytting og var opptatt av ungdoms forhold til sted. Hansen er professor emeritus, Institutt for geografi, Universitetet i Bergen.

Hansen er medlem av Det norske videnskaps-akademi, Den matematisk-naturvitenskapelige klasse, Gruppe 5: Astronomi, geodesi og geografi.

Окмалги (округ, Оклахома)

США

округ

Оклахома

Okmulgee, Oklahoma

Okmulgee, Oklahoma

1907

английский

39 625

21,622 чел./км²

1 818,182 км²

Координаты:    

Округ Окмалги (англ. Okmulgee County) располагается в штате Оклахома, США. Официально образован в 1907 году. По состоянию на 2012 год, численность населения составляла 39 625 человек.

По данным Бюро переписи США, общая площадь округа равняется 1 818,182 км2, из которых 1 805,232 км2 суша и 12,950 км2 или 0,760 % это водоемы.

По данным переписи населения 2000 года в округе проживает 39 685 жителей в составе 15 300 домашних хозяйств и 10 694 семей. Плотность населения составляет 22,00 человека на км2. На территории округа насчитывается 17 316 жилых строений, при плотности застройки около 10,00-ти строений на км2. Расовый состав населения: белые — 69,73 %, афроамериканцы — 10,20 %, коренные американцы (индейцы) — 12,85 %, азиаты — 0,19 %, гавайцы — 0,02 %, представители других рас — 0,61 %, представители двух или более рас — 6,40 %. Испаноязычные составляли 1,95 % населения независимо от расы.

В составе 32,00 % из общего числа домашних хозяйств проживают дети в возрасте до 18 лет, 52,80 % домашних хозяйств представляют собой супружеские пары проживающие вместе, 13,10 % домашних хозяйств представляют собой одиноких женщин без супруга, 30,10 % домашних хозяйств не имеют отношения к семьям, 27,10 % домашних хозяйств состоят из одного человека, 12,60 % домашних хозяйств состоят из престарелых (65 лет и старше), проживающих в одиночестве. Средний размер домашнего хозяйства составляет 2,53 человека, и средний размер семьи 3,06 человека.

Возрастной состав округа: 26,90 % моложе 18 лет, 9,50 % от 18 до 24, 25,30 % от 25 до 44, 23,30 % от 45 до 64 и 23,30 % от 65 и старше. Средний возраст жителя округа 37 лет. На каждые 100 женщин приходится 95,20 мужчин. На каждые 100 женщин старше 18 лет приходится 90,80 мужчин.

Средний доход на домохозяйство в округе составлял 27 652 USD, на семью — 33 987 USD. Среднестатистический заработок мужчины был 29 935 USD против 20 861 USD для женщины. Доход на душу населения составлял 14 065 USD. Около 14,90 % семей и 18,90 % общего населения находились ниже черты бедности, в том числе — 24,90 % молодежи (тех, кому ещё не исполнилось 18 лет) и 15,50 % тех, кому было уже больше 65 лет.

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820 Fifth Avenue

820 Fifth Avenue is a luxury cooperative in Manhattan, New York City, United States, located on Fifth Avenue at the Northeast corner of East 63rd Street on the Upper East Side.

The 12 story limestone-clad neo-Italian Renaissance palazzo is one of the most expensive and exclusive apartment houses in the city. It was designed by Starrett & van Vleck and built by Fred T.Ley in 1916. The land upon which it was built was previously occupied by the Progress Club. The frontage was 100.5 feet on Fifth Avenue and 100 feet on 63rd Street. Construction cost was 1 million dollars, exclusive of the land (which cost another million).

The building comprises 12 apartments. There are ten apartments that are full-floor. These apartments are lavish in scale, each containing roughly 6500 square feet. The lower two floors consist of two duplex maisonettes, one 7000 SF, the other 4500 square feet. There is also a superintendent’s apartment on the first floor, roughly 750 SF. All apartments feature marble floors, and fireplaces in all major rooms. The outer walls are two and a half feet thick and ceiling height is 11 feet (3.35m). The public rooms all face Central Park, and are accessed via the 44-foot-long gallery. The five bedrooms found in each apartment all have windows on 63rd Street and the numerous (usually seven) (7) servants rooms are in the back.

The facade is broken into five sections by four string courses and the centers of the east and south facades feature balustraded balconies.

Originally a rental, 820 Fifth Avenue was converted into a cooperative in 1949. There are 2 duplex maisonette apartments on the first and second floors, and 10 full-floor apartments on each of floors 3 through 12. Potential buyers must pay entirely in cash. No mortgage financing is allowed. The cooperative board requires potential buyers to possess liquid assets ten times the value of the apartment that they wish to purchase.

The building features a lounge for chauffeurs on the ground floor and a private, gated, holding area in back for cars. Other features include sidewalk landscaping, including Japanese Cherry Trees, and a canopied entrance flanked by bronze lanterns. Amenities include full-time doormen, concierge, elevator operators, laundry and storage rooms in the basement, and storage rooms on the roof which are sometimes used as servants‘ quarters, as they include baths and small kitchen facilities. Each apartment also has a spacious private wine cellar in the basement, which can accommodate thousands of bottles.

Each of the ten (10) full-floor apartments has three (3) private elevators which open directly into the apartment; A regular passenger elevator, a „party“ elevator for moving groups of guests in and out quickly, and a larger cargo „service“ elevator that opens into the Servants Hall… The service elevator is for moving furniture, luggage, package and flower deliveries, groceries and catering supplies, and for domestic servants, who are not permitted to use the regular passenger elevator…

820 Fifth Avenue is notorious for rejecting even very wealthy prospective buyers, including some billionaires.

These apartments rarely change hands and when they do, they typically command prices above 40 million dollars.

These include both current and former residents:

Coordinates:

Polish Theatre in Bydgoszcz

The Polish theatre or Polish: Polski Teatr of Bydgoszcz has been established in 1949, at Adam Mickiewicz Alley N°2, in downtown district. It is the outcome of a long and rich tradition of plays and performance in the city.

The Polish theater building is located on a main thoroughfare of Bydgoszcz, a hundred metres from Gdańska Street, the main downtown axis. Its surroundings include:

The first staging activity in Bydgoszcz occurred in 1623 when Jesuit school students acted (singing and dialogues) to welcome King Sigismund III Vasa to the city, on his way to Gdansk. The same event happened in 1643 for the bishop of Chelmno Kasper Działyńsk. In 1648, at the occasion of the end of the Lent and also in 1649, a pastoral play was performed by a Jesuit scene and in 1680 a play relating the martyrdom of St. Stanislaus of Szczepanów was realized. In the following years, occasional theater performances happened, celebrating school year, Corpus Christi, Christmas etc. In 1696, was held a stage event prepared in honor of Jan Komorowski, founder of a new school building in Bydgoszcz. Jesuit Theatre was even run during the Great Northern War (1700-1721), culminating with the performance in honor of King Stanisław Leszczyński in 1734.

The transition to Prussian rule coincided exactly with Pope Clement XIV’s decision to suppress the Society of Jesus. However Frederick the Great allowed them to continue to reside in the building college and lead a school. Performances were still held by students, but on a more modest scale. Besides, between 1773 and 1806, German professional theatre troupes started to tour:

The period of Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1815) raised Bydgoszcz as the capital of the new administrative unit (Bydgoszcz Department, bringing a revival of cultural life: theater troupes performances flourished on a stage built in the ex-Jesuit college building, in the facility of the Society „Harmony“. Amateurs (so-called „Social theater“), but also professional companies presented plays for specific occasions (e.g. the birthday of Napoleon). In 1815, three professional troupes existed in Bydgoszcz: Kasper Kaminski, Wilhelm Vogel and Bernard Seibt. They presented, among others, Polish: Krakowiacy i Górale by Wojciech Bogusławski, and The Robbers (German: Die Räuber) by Friedrich Schiller.

In 1824, a theater building was built on the foundations of the church of the Carmelites, on today’s Theatre Square: it burned down in 1835 and rebuilt a year later. The repertoire presented professional theatrical and opera troupes from Königsberg, Gdansk, Poznan, with actors performing in German and Polish language. Poles took part in all cultural events, as well as those organized by Prussia, and were also members of theatrical amateur teams of music and singing. An intensification of Germanisation inhibited the activity of Polish population in this cultural area.

The second half of the 19th century saw an increased cultural activity, with individual instances like Julian Prejs, a Bromberg writer and journalist (1865) or Tomasz Śniegocki who founded a Polish bookstore and reading room (1867), wihich helped Polish society to regain its own lost culture. In 1869, was founded „Reading Poland“ -Polish: Czytelnia Polska-, an important cultural and educational movement, aiming at disseminating Polish literature. In the years 1870-1871, following the military victory over France, German superiority culminated also in cultural field, with the movement called „Kulturkampf“ (Fight for Culture). In reaction, appeared Polish companies and organizations, like the Singing Society „Halka“ (1883), the People’s Libraries Society (1881) or the Society for Popular Education (1873). Following this trend, Poles in Bydgoszcz performed Krakowiacy i Górale by Wojciech Bogusławski on April 15, 1894 for the 10th anniversary of the Battle of Racławice, and celebrated the centenary of Adam Mickiewicz’s birth on December 8, 1898, by staging his ballads and romances. One of the most important institutions in this cultural flourish was the Municipal Theatre.

The creation of a permanent professional theater in Poznan, on the initiative of Wladyslaw Bełzy in 1870 allowed Bydgoszcz audience to attend Polish plays: the Poznan troupe first toured the city on May 17, 1870, under the direction of Milosz Sztengel. The repertoire offered:

The entire repertoire listed exclusively Polish songs by, among others, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Józef Korzeniowski, L. A. Dmuszewski and Wojciech Bogusławski. Prussian authorities of Bromberg region looked negatively at Poznan troupes performances. Many times they declined the permit for them to perform in the city, arguing that Bromberg had „already three theaters“, but all in German language. For Bydgoszcz audience, artists from Poznań have been a constant attraction, especially when staging „Kosciuszko songs“ and patriotic texts.

Despite competition from professional actors, Bydgoszcz amateurs still gathered to play in associations. In 1859, W. H. Gehrmann, leading a German itinerant troupe briefly launched a summer theater in Bydgoszcz. He reopened it in 1870, under the shape of a wooden building, realized by Bydgoszcz carpenter Adolf Berndt. On August 16, 1882, was built a new building, used by both German and Polish troupes, the „Theatre Viktoria“. It stood in the backyard of today’s Gdanska Street N°68. From 1892 to 1920 the scene acted under the name „Elysium“. There were presented mostly farces, operettas and vaudevilles. The decor of „Theatre Viktoria“, displayed a painted panorama of the Old Market in Bydgoszcz.

In 1902, Prussian authorities banned Polish teams from acting occurrence in the Municipal Theatre. It was only in 1918 that this ban was lifted. Meanwhile, diverse group of amateurs staged in various places, such as the garden of the tenement Dworcowa Street N°35: there were performed celebrations in honor of Henryk Sienkiewicz (1916) and the centenary of Kosciuszko (1917). In 1919 Polish troupe led by Ludwik Dybizbański arrived in Bromberg.

January 23, 1920: To celebrate the liberation of Bydgoszcz, DybizBański and his team played extracts of Adam Mickiewicz’s Dziady and Warszawianka at the Municipal Theatre. August 24, 1920: Wanda Siemaszkowa appointed as new director (until end of season 1921/1922). September 4, 1920: Season opened with Władysław Ludwik Anczyc’s Kosciuszko at Raclawice“. Ludwik Solski,a famous actor is present for the premiere. 1922: Józef Karbowski as new director. 1925: Bydgoszcz scene part of the newly created „United theaters of Bydgoszcz-Torun-Grudziadz“. Bydgoszcz stage under the leadership of Józef Krokowski. 1926-1927: Ludwik Dybizbański as director. 1927-1938: Wladyslaw Stoma as director. 1938-1939: Aleksandr Rodziewicz as director.

The performance of Aleksander Fredro’s Zemsta (The Revenge), on March 24, 1945 by Aleksandr Rodziewicz’s troupe was the first after Nazi occupation. It was played 44 times and gathered 14000 audience, Polish and Soviet people together. The play, prepared within a month time, was held in the premises of the summer theater „Elysium“, which could only host 350 spectators and was lacking any proper professional equipment. It was a real revival of the Polish scene in the city.

After 1945, the scene moved from the Elisium, called the Little theatre (Polish: Teatr Mały), to the Chamber theatre at Grodzka Street N°14 (1947).

In October 1949, a new association of state-owned scenes was established, „The Pomeranian State Theaters Bydgoszcz-Torun“ under lead of A. Rodziewicz: it lasted 10 years before each theatre troupe regained its independence. At the time, most of the performances were focused on contemporary drama, and mostly Soviet-mind oriented. Eventually, in autumn 1949, the Polish Theater has been built in Adam Mickiewicz Alley, according to the project of Alfons Licznerski: the building was realized free of charge, and the construction was funded by public collects. The inauguration occurred on October 6, with a premiere of Juliusz Słowacki’s Mazepa .

In 1960, Bydgoszcz scene took back its name of Teatr Polski, while remaining part of the state company „Dramatic Theatres of Bydgoszcz and Torun.“ The same year, on November 5, the Chamber theatre in Grodzka Street was re-opened as another city scene, initially conceived as a stage for cabaret-theater.

On June 28, 2000, the Polish Theatre was christened Hieronim Konieczka, actor, director and culture animator associated with Bydgoszcz.

Adam Orzechowski, then director, launched in 2002 a national theater festival, the Premiere Festival in Bydgoszcz (Polish: Festiwal Prapremier ). It occurs iat the Polish Theatre in Bydgoszcz every autumn and its program includes world premieres. It is now directed by Paul Łysak.

Another festival, Camera Obscura, promoting documentary films, is held annually since 2004: it is organized by Bydgoszcz association Fundację Sztuki Art House.

View from Adam Mickiewicz Alley

Main entrance

View from Jan Kochanowski park

Main frontage

By night

Coordinates:

Hugh MacPherson

Hugh MacPherson (born 1948) is a Professor or Acupuncture Research at the , founder and current Trustee of the , founder and co-ordinator of the international group, Clinic Director of York Clinic, Fellow of The College of Medicine, and a practicing member of the British Acupuncture Council.

After completing a PhD in applied mathematics at the University of New South Wales, Australia, in 1979, he trained in Chinese medicine becoming a registered acupuncturist in 1983. He became Clinical Director of the in 1986, and founded the in York in 1988, acting as the college’s principal from 1988 to 1997. Between 1997 and 2003, he was the Research Director of the , York. He then worked at the University of York, first as a Senior Research Fellow, and in 2016 as Professor of Acupuncture Research. He has been researching and writing about acupuncture since 1992 and published over 100 peer-reviewed articles on the subject.

He has appeared on a number of radio and television programs including BBC Radio 4’s The Other Medicine, BBC Two’s Alternative Medicine: The Evidence, BBC Three’s Kick Ass Miracles and BBC Two’s .

Hugh MacPherson’s research on acupuncture for low back pain was published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), and subsequently was central to the decision by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to recommend acupuncture for persistent low back pain in 2009. His study of acupuncture or counselling for ongoing depression in primary care found that both acupuncture and counselling are effective for patients, the majority of whom were taking antidepressants.

Hugh MacPherson was Principal Investigator on a study that investigated acupuncture and brain imaging in York, which was filmed by BBC Two Science but received press criticism for not being good science. The BBC Trust subsequently received a complaint about the programme that questioned the “significance accorded to brain-imaging results following deep needling.” The BBC defended the series against what they described as “unjust, inaccurate and damaging allegations made in the national press”. When this complaint related to the brain imaging was considered by the BBC Trust in 2007, it was not upheld. Three peer-reviewed publications (references below) resulted from this study, which established new results on acupuncture’s impact on brain function. This included a publication, published in the journal Brain Research, which showed that acupuncture works by deactivating pain pathways in the brain.

Archie Dagg

Archie Dagg (1899–1990) was a shepherd and traditional fiddler, piper and composer from central Northumberland. He was born at Linbriggs, in Upper Coquetdale, and except for his time in the Army at the end of the First World War, lived all his life in that region. In the late 1930s, he was a member of the English Sheepdog Trials Team; when competing with them in Scotland, he would play Scottish tunes on the Northumbrian smallpipes, and found he would get a steady supply of free drams.

Dagg learned the fiddle from his father, who forbade him to play anything but hymns on a Sunday; later he led the Hillbillies Dance Band during the 1920s and early 1930s. He was also an early member of the Northumbrian Pipers‘ Society; later he played as one of The Border Minstrels, along with Billy Pigg, John Armstrong (of Carrick), and Annie Snaith, from 1938. They did not play much during the war years, but restarted after the war. In a taped interview, another Border shepherd, Willie Scott, recalled that traditional musicians were rarely influenced by records or radio, Archie Dagg the piper certainly wasn’t. he also stated that very few musicians could read music, one old piper, a cousin of his fathers, could „trace out an air“ from scores, though it took him a long time before he could play it right, Archie Dagg couldn’t, he needed to hear an air.

After retiring from farming, and settling first at Swindon, near Rothbury, and later at Rodsley Court, Rothbury, Dagg took to pipemaking, and particularly reedmaking, for which he became highly respected. Kathryn Tickell has stated that she learned on a set made by him; she still uses the bellows made by Archie Dagg with her current set. Francis Wood, himself a pipemaker, writes that „Dagg’s best reeds were scraped relatively thin, giving a clear bright tone with a very rapid response, highly suitable for original Robert Reid chanters and others made after this pattern.“ Distinctively, he signed his reeds on the inside, in reverse, so his name is visible when the reed is held up to the light.

In the interview cited above, Willie Scott referred to „a tremendous set of pipes

that Archie Dagg had recently made from ivory“. He signed his name on these musically, with the notes A DAGG shown on a stave.

His home at Rodsley Court was the venue for a regular weekly pipers‘ session for many years. He also composed tunes – his tunebook, ‚A Coquetdale Garland‘ published in 1978, was reissued in an expanded edition after his death, in 1995, with a foreword by Joe Hutton. It includes 19 tunes, many of which have since become standards, regularly played at sessions, having been reprinted by the Northumbrian Pipers‘ Society and the Alnwick Pipers‘ Society. A recording on the , by Joe Hutton includes three of these.

In taped interviews for a B.A. thesis, Dagg discussed how he started with the pipes, learning with Billy Pigg. In another tape, he talked in detail about pipemaking, and in a third he recalled Tom Clough, Richard Mowat, G.G. Armstrong and ‚Kielder Jock‘ Davison. The recordings also include some of his playing, including his own ‚Foxglove Hornpipe‘. In the 1986 interview he remembered these musicians, and stated that Mowat was one of the best pipers ever, recalling his playing of the air „Caller Herrin“; he also recalled the playing of Harry Clough and Tom Clough, whose special tune was the variation set on „Maggy Lauder“. He noted that formerly, most pipers were ear players, while nowadays they tend to play from written music; he preferred a happy medium. He deplored the tendency of some pipers to play tunes too fast, holding that to do so was not music at all.

Bernard Frederick Trench

Captain Bernard Frederick Trench (17 July 1880 – 10 October 1967) was a British soldier and famous spy who was caught and convicted by the German authorities just a few years before World War I. In 1913 he was released as a present to Ernest Augustus the Duke of Brunswick when Augustus married the German Kaiser’s daughter, Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia. Trench was a descendent of Lord Ashtown and of Archbishop Trench.

Captain Trench was arrested and went to trial with another man, Lieutenant Vivian H. Brandon R.N., who had been arrested a few days earlier. Trench had other accomplices on his mission to scout out information about the military installations on the island of Borkum but he was the only person arrested from his spy ring. He was an agent of the infamous spy master and future first director of what would become the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), also known as MI6, Mansfield Smith-Cumming. Trench’s codename was COUNTERSCRAP.

Trench and Brandon’s trial took place at the Leipzig Supreme Court in the so-called Great Court of the Reichsgericht on 22 December 1910. Convicted of espionage they were both sentenced to a term of four years.

During his imprisonment Trench hanged himself from the ceiling by his neck but he didn’t die. In letters he claimed that he didn’t intend to commit suicide or escape. Trench’s letters did condemn Captain Lux (a French officer) who did escape from the fortress during Trench’s imprisonment. Trench complained that the lax security at the fort was possible due to a promise from the prisoners not to attempt to break out.

Captain Trench and another British subject caught spying, Captain Bertrand Stewart, were pardoned and released by the German Kaiser as a present to Ernest Augustus the Duke of Brunswick when Augustus married the Kaiser’s daughter, Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia. (They married on 24 May 1913).

He fought in World War II and married Mary Audrey Taylor, daughter of Reverend Robert Fetzer Taylor, on 8 September 1943.

Vucherens

Géolocalisation sur la carte : canton de Vaud

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Suisse

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Suisse

Vucherens est une commune suisse du canton de Vaud, située dans le district de la Broye-Vully. Citée dès 1224, elle fait partie du district de Moudon entre 1798 et 2007. Sa population est de 532 habitants en 2014. Son territoire, d’une surface de 327 hectares, se situe dans la région du Jorat.

Le village est mentionné en 1224 sous le nom de Wicherens. En 1300, Jean de Vucherens est propriétaire du Château de Saint-Martin-du-Chêne, sur la commune actuelle de Molondin. En 1358, le village dépend de la châtellenie de Moudon. Il fait partie du bailliage de Moudon à l’époque bernoise, puis du district de Moudon de 1798 à 2007. Une chapelle existe en 1523. L’église actuelle date de 1737. Des carrières de tuf sont exploitées entre 1700 et 1900. Entre 1902 et 1962, le tram reliant Lausanne à Moudon s’arrête dans la commune.

Les armes de la commune de Vucherens se blasonnent ainsi :
De gueules à la chouette d’argent sur un mont à trois coupeaux de sinople.

La surface totale de la commune de Vucherens représente 327 hectares qui se décomposent en : 40 ha de surfaces d’habitat et d’infrastructure, 210 ha de surfaces agricoles, 76 ha de surfaces boisées et enfin 1 ha de surfaces improductives (lacs et cours d’eau). Dans le détail en 2005, les aires industrielles et artisanales représentent 1,22 % du territoire communal, les maisons et bâtiments 7,03 %, les routes et infrastructures de transport 3,98 %, les zones agricoles 38,84 % et les zones arboricoles et viticoles moins d’1 %.

Jusqu’à sa dissolution, la commune faisait partie du district de Moudon. Depuis le 1er janvier 2008, elle fait partie du nouveau district de la Broye-Vully. Elle a des frontières communes avec les communes de Carrouge, d’Hermenches, de Ropraz, de Syens, et de Vulliens.

La commune s’étend sur une plaine molassique formée entre les vallées de la Bressonne à l’ouest et du Carrouge à l’est, au nord-est des hauteurs du Jorat. Partant du Carrouge, le terrain monte progressivement pour atteindre les crêtes formées par le bois de Bioley à 753 mètres d’altitude et le Bochet, point culminant de la commune avec 757 mètres d’altitude.

Outre le village de Vucherens, la commune compte encore deux hameaux : le Closy situé sur le côté ouest de la vallée du Carrouge et La Râpe, sur la face orientale de la vallée de Bressonne.

Lors des élections fédérales suisses de 2011, la commune a voté à 25,36 % pour le Parti socialiste suisse. Les deux partis suivants furent l’Union démocratique du centre avec 24,89 % des suffrage et le Parti libéral-radical avec 15,93 %.

Lors des élections cantonales au Grand Conseil de mars 2011, les habitants de la commune ont voté pour le Parti socialiste à 25,38 %, le Parti libéral-radical à 22,24 %, les Verts à 21,73 %, l’Union démocratique du centre à 21,14 %,le Parti bourgeois démocratique et les Vert’libéraux à 6,37 % et Vaud Libre à 3,14 %.

Sur le plan communal, Vucherens est dirigé par une municipalité formée de 5 membres et dirigée par un syndic pour l’exécutif et un Conseil communal, composé de 30 élus, dirigé par un président et secondé par un secrétaire, pour le législatif.

Selon l’Office fédéral de la statistique, Vucherens compte 532 habitants en 2014 Sa densité de population atteint 162,7 hab./km2.

En 2000, la population de Vucherens est composée de 211 hommes (47,5 %) et 233 femmes (52,5 %). La langue la plus parlée est le français, avec 417 personnes (94,2 %). La deuxième langue est l’allemand (11 ou 2,5 %). Il y a 404 personnes suisses (91,2 %) et 39 personnes étrangères (8,8 %). Sur le plan religieux, la communauté protestante est la plus importante avec 286 personnes (64,5 %), suivie des catholiques (89 ou 20,1 %). 54 personnes (12,2 %) n’ont aucune appartenance religieuse.

La population de Vucherens est de 458 habitants en 1850, puis de 370 dix ans plus tard. Après une période stable jusqu’en 1900, elle baisse lentement jusqu’à 258 habitants en 1970. Elle remonte à 293 en 1980 avant une hausse de 46 % en 10 ans jusqu’à 428 personnes. Le graphique suivant résume l’évolution de la population de Vucherens entre 1850 et 2010 :

La chapelle de Vucherens, classée monument historique, est dédiée à Saint-Pierre et Saint-Pancrace. Construite en 1737, c’est d’abord une annexe de l’église de Syens. Elle est rénovée en 1897, puis de 1923 à 1924 et en 1957. En 2000, Vucherens quitte la paroisse de Syens et rejoint celle du Jorat.

Principalement tournée vers l’agriculture et l’élevage malgré une nette diminution du nombre d’exploitations lors des dernières décennies, la commune compte également quelques entreprises locales ainsi qu’un café restaurant.

Au niveau des transports en commun, Vucherens fait partie de la communauté tarifaire vaudoise Mobilis. Le bus des Transports publics de la région lausannoise reliant Lausanne à Moudon s’arrête dans la commune. Le village est aussi desservi par les bus sur appel Publicar, qui sont un service de CarPostal.

La commune compte deux sociétés de tir (l’abbaye de Vucherens appelée « La Sentinelle du Biolley », dont les Roys de l’édition 2014 ont été MM. Pierre-André

Haas, Daniel Schorderet et Pierre-Alain Leresche, et la société de tir « Aux armes de guerres »), ainsi qu’une société de jeunesse.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Liancourt Rocks

The Liancourt Rocks, also known as Dokdo or Tokto (Korean pronunciation: [tokt͈o]; Hangul: 독도; hanja: 獨島, literally solitary island) in Korean, and Takeshima (竹島/たけしま?, literally bamboo island) in Japanese, are a group of small islets in the Sea of Japan. While South Korea controls the islets, its sovereignty over them is contested by Japan. South Korea classifies the islets as Dokdo-ri, Ulleung-eup, Ulleung County, North Gyeongsang Province. Japan classifies them as part of Okinoshima, Oki District, Shimane Prefecture.

The Franco-English name of the islets derives from Le Liancourt, the name of a French whaling ship which came close to being wrecked on the rocks in 1849.

The Liancourt Rocks consist of two main islets and 35 smaller rocks; the total surface area of the islets is 0.18745 square kilometres (46.32 acres), with the highest elevation of 169 metres (554 ft) found at an unnamed location on the West Islet.

The Liancourt Rocks lie in rich fishing grounds which may contain large deposits of natural gas.

The Liancourt Rocks consist of two main islets and numerous surrounding rocks. The two main islets, called Seodo (Hangul: 서도; hanja: 西島; literally Western Island) and Dongdo (Hangul: 동도; hanja: 東島; literally Eastern Island) in Korean, and Ojima (男島; literally Male Island) and Mejima (女島; literally Female Island) in Japanese, are 151 metres (495 ft) apart. The Western Island is the larger of the two, with a wider base and higher peak, while the Eastern Island offers more usable surface area.

Altogether, there are about 90 islets and reefs, volcanic rocks formed in the Cenozoic era, more specifically 4.6 to 2.5 million years ago. A total of 37 of these islets are recognized as permanent land.[verification needed]

The total area of the islets is about 187,450 square metres (46.32 acres), with their highest point at 169 metres (554 ft) on the West Islet. The western islet is about 88,640 square metres (21.90 acres); the eastern islet is about 73,300 square metres (18.1 acres). The western islet consists of a single peak and features many caves along the coastline. The cliffs of the eastern islet are about 10 to 20 metres (33 to 66 ft) high. There are two large caves giving access to the sea, as well as a crater.[verification needed]

In 2006, a geologist reported that the islets formed 4.5 million years ago and are quickly eroding.

Liancourt Rocks are located at about 131°52′ East longitude and about 37°14′ North latitude. The western islet is located at and the Eastern Islet is located at .

Liancourt Rocks are situated at a distance of 216.8 kilometres (117.1 nmi) from mainland Korea and 211 kilometres (114 nmi) from the main island of Japan (Honshu). The nearest indisputably Korean island, Ulleung-do, is at a distance of 87.4 kilometres (47.2 nmi), while the distance to the nearest indisputably Japanese island, Oki Islands, is 157 kilometres (85 nmi).

Due to their location and small size, the Liancourt Rocks can have harsh weather. If the swell is greater 3 to 5 metres, then landing is not possible so on average ferries can only dock about once in every forty days. Overall, the climate is warm and humid, and heavily influenced by warm sea currents. Precipitation is high throughout the year (annual average—1,324 millimetres or 52.1 inches), with occasional snowfall. Fog is common. In summer, southerly winds dominate. The water around the islets is about 10 °C (50 °F) in early spring, when the water is coldest, warming to about 24 °C (75 °F) in late summer.

The islets are volcanic rocks, with only a thin layer of soil and moss. About 49 plant species, 107 bird species, and 93 insect species have been found to inhabit the islets, in addition to local marine life with 160 algal and 368 invertebrate species identified. Although between 1,100 and 1,200 litres of fresh water flow daily, desalinization plants have been installed on the islets for human consumption because existing spring water suffers from guano contamination.[citation needed] Since the early 1970s trees and some types of flowers were planted.[citation needed] According to historical records, there used to be trees indigenous to Liancourt Rocks, which have supposedly been wiped out by overharvesting and fires caused by bombing drills over the islets. A recent investigation, however, identified ten spindle trees aged 100–120 years. Cetaceans such as killer whales are known to migrate through these areas.

Records of the human impact on the Liancourt Rocks before the late 20th century are scarce, although both Japanese and Koreans claim to have felled trees and killed Japanese sea lions there for many decades.

There is a serious concern for pollution in the seas surrounding the Liancourt Rocks. The sewage water treatment system established on the islets has malfunctioned and sewage water produced by inhabitants of the Liancourt Rocks such as South Korean Coast Guard and lighthouse staff is being dumped directly into the ocean. Significant water pollution has been observed; sea water has turned milky white, sea vegetation is progressively dying off, and calcification of coral reefs is spreading. The pollution is also causing loss of biodiversity in the surrounding seas. In November 2004, eight tons of malodorous sludge was being dumped into the ocean every day. Efforts have since been made by both public and private organizations to help curb the level of pollution surrounding the Rocks.

From March 1965 Choi Jong-duk, a resident of Ulleung-do, started to dwell on the islets to make a living from fishing. He also helped install facilities from May 1968. In 1981, Choi Jong-dok changed his administrative address to the Liancourt Rocks, making himself the first person to officially live there. He died there in September 1987. His son-in-law, Cho Jun-ki, and his wife also resided there from 1985 until they moved out in 1992. Meanwhile, in 1991, Kim Sung-do and Kim Shin-yeol transferred to the islets as permanent residents, still continuing to live there. In addition to these residents, there are 37 South Korean national police officers on guard duty.

There are also three Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries personnel, and three lighthouse keepers staying on the islets in rotation.[citation needed]

Since the South Korean Coast Guard was sent to the islets, civilian travel was subject to South Korean government approval; they have claimed that the reason for this is that the islet group is designated as a nature reserve.[citation needed]

The South Korean government gave its approval to allow 1,597 visitors to visit the islets in 2004. Since March 2005, more tourists have received approval to visit. The South Korean government lets up to 70 tourists land at any one given time; one ferry provides rides to the islets every day. Tour companies charge around 350,000 Korean won per person (approx. 250 US dollars as of 2009).

South Korea has carried out a lot of construction work on the Liancourt Rocks. Today, the islands house a lighthouse, a helicopter pad, a large South Korean flag visible from the air, a post box, a staircase, and police barracks. In 2007, two desalinization plants were built capable of producing 28 tons of clean water every day. Both of the major South Korean telecommunications companies have installed cellular telephone towers on the islets.

American and French whaleships cruised for right whales off the rocks between 1849 and 1892.

Sovereignty over the islands has been an ongoing point of contention in Japan–South Korea relations. There are conflicting interpretations about the historical state of sovereignty over the islets. Korean claims are partly based on references to an island called Usan-do (우산도, 于山島/亐山島) in various medieval historical records, maps, and encyclopedia such as Samguk Sagi, Annals of Joseon Dynasty, Dongguk Yeoji Seungnam, and Dongguk munhon bigo. According to the Korean view, these refer to today’s Liancourt Rocks.

Japanese researchers of these documents have claimed the various references to Usan-do refer at different times to Jukdo, its neighboring island Ulleungdo, or a non-existent island between Ulleungdo and Korea. (The first printed usage of the name Dokdo was in a Japanese log book in 1904).

Other key points of the dispute involve the legal basis which Japan used to claim the islands in 1905, and the legal basis of South Korea’s claim on the islands in 1952.

North Korea reportedly supports South Korea’s claim.

Coordinates:

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